Reuse is to reuse the products rather than throwing them away after a short time. Recycle is to make use of the old materials to create something new out of it.by the efficient use of these three Rs the consumers can minimize the amount of waste they generate to an extent. This can be achieved by bringing small changes in our daily lifestyles. Reduce is the beginning of the Rs. Reduce can be achieved by buying recycled products, especially paper and bathroom tissue.
This recycled wastes materials that enters disposal sites are providing the needed raw materials for industries. Affirming the recycling method is the best, effective and efficient method of managing solid waste according to the industries. Recycled waste materials will be converted from a useless material into valuable resources, capable of generating employment and bringing in economic returns. Recycling can conserve natural resources and yields environmental, financial and social returns, it conserved energy, prevention of pollution and the expansion of economic. More importantly that a small amount of, what is to be dispose contains raw valuable resources.
(2013) added that most are poorly rendered services by municipal authorities as the systems applied are unscientific, out-dated and in-efficient and government policies on the environment are piecemeal where they exist and are poorly implemented. Moreover, the lack of funding and equipment that enables waste management systems to operate efficiently exacerbates erratic solid waste management in developing countries. According tp Bhavannrayana et al. (2003), municipal solid waste management has emerged as a dominant urban environmental issue that has attracted academic, economic and media debates, and has over the years developed into an independent discipline’. However, growth in publication and public general awareness is so slow therefore more has to be done to engage commuters to participate
for building).The major methods of waste management are: Recycling—the recovery of materials from products after they have been used by consumers. Composting—an aerobic, biological process of degradation of biodegradable organic matter. Sewage treatment—a process of treating raw sewage to produce a non-toxic liquid effluent which is discharged to rivers or sea and a semi-solid sludge, which is used as a soil amendment on land, incinerated or disposed of in land fill. Incineration—a process of combustion designed to recover energy and reduce the volume of waste going to disposal. Landfill—the deposition of waste in a specially designated area, which in modern sites consists of a pre-constructed ‘cell’ lined with an impermeable layer (man-made or natural) and with controls to minimize emissions.
According to Environmental Paper Network, 2007: ' 'Making copy paper from 100% recycled content fiber instead of 100% virgin forest fibers reduces total energy consumption by 44%, net greenhouse gas emissions by 38%, particulate emissions by 41%, wastewater by 50%, solid waste by 49% and wood use by 100%".these statistics clearly show the impact of recycling. Therefore, recycling waste is very important for the environment these days. The purpose of this study is to help the environment by using recycled objects. It is very important for everyone to know that recycling can help them to get better life because the pollution will be less. Recycling can have a huge impact on the environment by reducing pollution, minimizing the threats posed
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND RESEARCH DESIGN Review of literature Let us consider some of the wastes that is present in this world. Some of them are agricultural waste, biodegradable waste, electronic waste, food waste, etc., All these wastes to some extent are not waste i.e., it can recycled and can be used further through recycling process. For example biodegradable waste can be further used for composting or a resource for heat, fuel and electricity by different means. The same way even e-wastes can be recycled and reused. A good example which comes before us is Dell, which banned export of nonworking electronics and e-waste to developing countries.
It is simple to recycle glass and metallic materials recovered by meting them down, reforming them and re-using them. Whereas, it is possible to compost yard waste with limited or no equipment. Furthermore, paper, which is the material that is most recycled has to be mixed with water, sometime may require de-inking, for pulp that is usable in papermaking to be formed. On their part, recycling plastics tends to be prohibitive because of the costly separation of the various resins contained. Especially in the US, all plastics are coded numerically based on their respective types.
Urbanization and high population growth are responsible for many environmental problems of which the one is solid waste. Around the streets, market, commercial and residential areas, solid wastes easily appear. Despite the progress by Jimma Town to address the challenges of solid waste management, still there are unresolved problems like low coverage of Solid Waste Management (SWM) service, absence of well designed transfer site, and problem of demarcating the final site of disposal. In the year 2014/15, the total solid waste generated by different sectors is 144,000m3, of which more than 50% is from households. However, in the same year, the total solid waste collected far below the waste generated; it is 81,152m3 (Jimma City Administration,
Waste is produced by all sectors of the economy. Every person is a potential producer of waste. It is as old as the existence of human beings. In early times, in order to minimize the health impacts of wastes, transporting the waste out of residential places been the primary concern of authorities. After the end of the Second World War, a high rate of population and urbanization has brought an increased demand of urban and waste disposal land.
1.) HAZARDOUS WASTE 1.1) Hazardous Waste Hazardous waste can be defined as waste that even in low concentrations, has the potential to have a significant adverse effect on the public health and the surrounding environment due to the inherent toxicological, chemical and physical characteristics that it possesses. 1.2) Handling of Hazardous Waste Hazardous waste requires stringent control and management, to prevent harm or damage and hence liabilities. It may only be disposed of in a hazardous landfill.  The ‘precautionary principle’ should always be applied, hence waste should always be regarded as Hazardous whenever there is any doubt about the potential danger the waste could pose on humans and the environment.