This study used multivariable logistic regression to adjust for prior mental health conditions, age, gender, disciplinary actions, protective custody, short or long term administrative segregation, chronic discipline, special risk group, or special needs, the total time spent in solitary confinement such as number of days/weeks/months. The findings in this study showed that more than 40 percent of the recently released were found to have symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and they feel that there should be a larger study done to confirm their
Major Ethical Issues of Solitary Confinement Solitary confinement can affect a person’s physical and mental health simply because it deprives an individual of their need to interact with others on a daily basis. Solitary confinement, which is used to restrain violent and volatile inmates from the general prison population, is done in increments ranging from several months to years. In an article retrieved from the American Psychological Association, ‘Alone, in ‘the Hole’’, the author states that, “for most of the 20th century, prisoners' stays in solitary confinement were relatively short.” This was the standing rule, in which inmates visited what is known as ‘the hole’, for several weeks to months. As time went by, the average length of stay
Inmates locked in solitary confinement have attempted to commit suicide and to punish those inmates for attempting suicide they were punished with more time in solitary confinement. The correctional facility is punishing inmate for having a mental breakdown while in solitary confinement and the counter to their breakdown is to furthering their confinement. With the over use of solitary confinement, it is driving inmates to behave and respond in manners that are unusual to them. On March 19, 2013, Thomas Lynn Clements was the head of the Colorado Department of Corrections was shot and killed at his home by Evan Ebel and inmate that was once housed in Colorado prison and held in solitary confinement for 5½ of his six years. Ebel was released
How would I feel if I were in solitary confinement for 15 years? It is almost guaranteed to affect my physical, mental as well as my social health throughout the years. I will have no contact with other people, I will be fed poorly and unable to function as a normal human being. Solitary confinement for fifteen years would have negative affects on my physical, mental and social health.
The author presented good points when it comes to the issues with placing juveniles in secure confinement. When placing these juveniles into confined locations it can sometimes set them up for failure and the chance of rehabilitation is slim to none. In the text it mentions issues these kids face by being in a secure facility, the issues consists of not being properly handled to due undertrained staff , not having enough staff to monitor the kids, and keeping the kids away from the adult offenders if they are placed in that type of facility. These issues and others have been known to cause depression, suicide/suicide attempts, rape, and other horrible things to happen to the kids.
Solitary confinement began as a standard punishment of the penitentiary system in the United States in the nineteenth century. It was a response to the philosophical transformation influenced by the Enlightenment, that sought to distance punishment from brutality (Cloud, Drucker, Browne, & Parsons, 2015). The penitentiary system was developed as a more humane alternative to the torture and executions that were happening in England (Cloud et al., 2015). Instead of having corporal and capital punishment, such as public hangings and whippings, individuals were confined to their own cells (Guenther, 2013). Supporters, such as the Quakers, believed that this confinement would force the individuals to confront their own conscience, and they would
For decades, solitary confinement has continually been used in attempts to keep order in U.S. penitentiaries. Solitary confinement or “the hole” is a prison within the prison. First experimented with in the U.S. in 1829 it was meant to isolate prisoners in a stone cell with only a Bible with the idea that the inmates would reflect, pray, and repent. To be more specific “solitary confinement is a person in a cell alone for 22 to 24 hours a day with little human contact or interaction; reduced or no natural light; restriction or denial of reading material, television, radios or other property; severe constraints on visitation; and the inability to participate in group activities, including eating with others” (The Dangerous Overuse…). The cell
In my honest opinion solitary confinement in the U.S. is not justified and only does more harm than good. Not only is it a rash punishment, but it is one of the worst kinds of psychological tortures that could be inflicted upon an inmate. Human beings are undoubtedly social creatures and without the mere contact of another person the mind decays and ultimately leads a person to anger, anxiety, and hopelessness. Psychologists also claim that solitary confinement and isolation in general also cause depression or the loss of ability to have any "feelings", cognitive disturbances, such as confused thought processes and disorientation, perceptual distortions, such as hypersensitivity to noises and smells, distortions of sensations, and hallucinations affecting all five senses, as well as paranoia and psychosis which often times involve schizophrenic type symptoms, and finally, the worst of all symptoms, being self-harm such as self-mutilation, cutting and even suicide attempts.
Confinement is considered to be harmful to an inmate’s mental health. Lengthier stays in solitary have been associated with more mental health symptoms, resulting in extreme emotional and behavioral consequences. Depending on the individual and the length of the stay in confinement the emotional effects can range from acute to chronic. Deprived of social interaction, a stimulus humans need to stay healthy and to be able to function properly, many mental health issues have been reported by the isolated inmates. This can include anxiety, panic, paranoia, insomnia, aggression, depression, self-harm, and thoughts of suicide.
Within juvenile detention facilities, staff place children in isolation for varying periods of time, ranging from hours to months. The reasons staff place children in solitary confinement cells vary widely from one facility to the next, and even from one staff to another at the same facility. Employees often place a youth in isolation because it is the easiest and fastest way to ensure facility security. Some rationales for the practice are: safety, security, disciplinary, administrative, protective and medical. Using this method to control a youth’s behavior or for a disciplinary reason is very common.
The article, The Steep Costs of Keeping Juveniles in Adult Prisons by Jessica Lahey states that “due to the imbalance of power between children and adults, not to mention between children and prison staff, sexual abuse of juveniles in adult prison is underreported; fewer than one in 10 of the juveniles surveyed reported their abuse.” ( ). The adult prison is not safe because of the abuses between the staff and juvenile, they need to be aware of what happens in the adult system. Lahey wants to show how dangerous the adult system is by stating what actually happens in prison to the juveniles because of the adult prisoners and the staff. Lahey also explains about how the lack of services and safety, “juveniles housed in adult prisons are 36 times more likely to commit suicide than juveniles housed apart from adult offenders.”
In the article, “Greg Ousley Is Sorry for Killing Parents. Is That Enough?” Scott Anderson exemplifies that juveniles may be living in a toxic home environment, which leads to potential murder. In “Juveniles Don’t Deserve Life Sentence,” Garinger speaks about juveniles that are mistreated and were subject to life without parole sentences. Lastly, the article that also justifies that juvenile justice is solidified would be, “Report: Juvenile justice system schools “do more harm than good,” Frey argues that the juvenile system may be harmful, in that some juveniles suffer from disabilities and behavioral issues.
Solitary Confinement as Cruel and Unusual Punishment “Deprived of all human contact, you lose your feeling of connectedness to the world. You lose your ability to make small talk, even with the guard who shoves your meal through the slot in the door. You live in your head, for there is nothing else.” The featured quote is by a man named Wilbert Rideau, who served almost 44 years for manslaughter in Louisiana State Penitentiary. During his time in isolation he counted his cell’s 358 rivets repeatedly (Wash. Editorial Board).