INTRODUCTION Chondroblastoma is an uncommon benign tumor accounting for less than 1% of bone tumors. It mainly involves the epiphysis or epimetaphysis of long bones. (1) Chondroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst is a rare entity and only 13 cases have been reported in the literature reviewed. Ours is a case of calcaneal chondroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. Only two cases of calcaneal chondroblastoma associated with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) has been reported till date in the literature reviewed.
Mammography is specialized medical imaging examination that uses a low-dose x-ray system to see inside the breasts. It uses x-rays to take images of the breast from different angles. Doctors use a mammography exam, called a mammogram to look for early signs of breast cancer which helps in the early discovery and diagnosis of breast diseases. Regular mammograms are the best assessments doctors have to catch breast cancer early, sometimes up to three years before it can be felt. (ACR), 2018) .Breast screening is an effective way of detecting breast cancer, often at a very early stage, when there are no outward signs.
e. skin changes-The mammographer should note any bulging of the skin, protruding areas that change the shape of the breast, and any swelling. Skin changes associated with irritation, such as redness, rashes, or bumps, often are seen on digital mammograms due to image manipulation or post processing features. f. nipple and areolar changes- The mammographer should look for indentations, retraction, and dimpling of
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of CT scan in diagnosing bronchogenic carcinoma taking histopathology as the gold standard. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION Bronchogenic Carcinoma All those patients who had a pulmonary lesion on X ray along with history of symptoms like hemoptysis, weight loss, and recurrent pleural effusion etc. will be taken as possible cases of bronchogenic carcinoma. Diagnostic Accuracy of the investigation will be assessed via sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of CT scan taking histopathology findings as true negative or positive. MATERIALS AND
Patient treating without his informed consent probably can sues and consent with reluctance, fear or japery is not valid. So it is a kind of risk management and indicates responsible person (14). In taking informed consent, clinician should pursue ethics and pay their respects to patient decisions about practice and his autonomy. Consent should be voluntary and patient should have a good perception of nature of proposed practice. Because, legally, any practice without consent is equal public rights violation
(2) Orbscan: (A) Screening for subclinical keratoconus: The data depicted and displayed by the Orbscan system have added a very important value to the diagnostic tools that may detect early keratoconus. The early diagnosis of subtle changes is critical for the evaluation candidates for laser vision correction, as well as providing early diagnosis and sensitive follow up of progression in the era of procedures designated to stabilize the corneal shape such as cross-linking. Being the first widely spread “catch-all” corneal topographer that provides posterior corneal surface mapping, Orbscan introduced a new era in refractive surgery and keratoconus diagnosis. Thus, the topography of anterior corneal surface became insufficient in
It shows corneas that are not only thin, but with their thinnest portion significantly displaced. At times, the pachymetric distribution may be the most sensitive or earliest indicator of an ectatic disorder and may be abnormal in spite of a normal anterior corneal surface. 4-Thickness distribution maps (Ambrosio et al., 2002): Corneal thickness progression graph detects a suspect abnormal abrupt increase of the thickness values from the thinnest point towards the limbus. Patient lines (red) should be between the lines and follow the curve of the normative data. Progression index of the graph should be less than 1.2.
In the 1991 World Health Organization (WHO) classification SDC has been listed as a separate categorization because of its special clinical and pathologic characteristics. Particularly, SDC is an epithelial tumor of high malignancy with formation of relatively large cell aggregates resembling distended salivary ducts. The neoplastic epithelium shows a combination of cribriform, looping and solid growth patterns, often with central necrosis, both in the primary lesion and the lymph node metastases. This extremely rare carcinoma looks like comedocarcinoma of the breast. The most important histologic attribute of this neoplasm is its similarity to ductal carcinoma of the breast.
FNAC smears show monolayered sheets and loosely cohesive clusters of polygonal to oval epithelial cells with bland chromatin, moderate amount of cytoplasm and inconspicuous nucleoli. Occasional cytoplasmic vacuolations were seen. Few clusters of fragments of spindle cells with moderate amount of cytoplasm and elongated nuclei were also seen. Background showed scattered hemosiderin laden