The theory implies that during a social exchange, a person identifies the amount of input gained from a relationship compared to the output, as well as how much effort another person’s puts forth. Based on Adam (1965) theory, Huseman, Hatfield and Miles (1987) further suggest that if an employee thinks there is an inequity between two social groups or individuals, the employee is likely to be distressed or dissatisfied because the input and the output are not equal. The major concern in equity theory is about payment and therefore the cause of concern of equity or inequity in most cases in organisations. According to Adams (1963), when a person becomes aware of inequity, it causes a reaction in them, potentially some form of tension that is proportional to the magnitude of inequity present. It is because of this tension that an individual might react in a way that reduces the tension in him.
Moreover, most big companies tend to place their employee to certain department based on their language instead of their skills to make it “easier”. In addition, in this era, most of the companies hire employees from different races due to globalization. So, as we can see, there might be some of the employees that would be racist towards other races so probable that they would not accept having other races working at the same department as they are (Racism 2015). It does not matter how unfair it is to the inferior races, they still have to learn to accept all these people around them and learn how to be professional in the workplace in the midst of racism and hate crime. Sometimes there are workers that say harsh words to the workers from different nationality as they are and that is usually came from the workers with higher ranking in race.
Abstract This paper will explain why employers monitor their employees in the workplace and what are the recent devices and programs used in the monitoring process. The paper will examine also the effects of the surveillance on the employees’ psychological health and their rights to privacy. Nowadays, the negative effects of surveillance must be discussed and solved. In addition, a solution is given to ease the controversy between the employer’s work protection and the employees’ privacy rights. Last, the paper gives ways to let the employers know how to deal with their staffs at work without restricting them.
It is very important to know who your audience is – what is their background and knowledge level of the material you are presenting and what they are hoping to get out of the presentation. For the oral report to be effective, the content, format and structure of the report needs to be adjusted to the targeted audience. An oral report can easily be ruined if the topic being discussed is too complex or if the structure is too complicated and cannot be understood by the audience. The speaker’s tone, language and the choice of visuals should suit the audience. If the audience is young and informal, the oral report could include a more casual tone and language and possibly more flashy visuals.
It is not clear whether stress is the main cause behind ineffectiveness of employees. Stress has an impact on an individual attitudes and behaviours, taking negative form in the long run. A member of a team in a workplace having a stress passes on to another member of the team (Biron, Murray and Cooper, 2012). In this context, the dissertation revolves around the evaluation of different types of stress faced by employees in their workplace and its impact on them. The research also focuses on the different methods adopted by the organisations to solve the issues related to stress to increase its employee productivity.
2.4.2 Motivation in Second Language Learning and Language Performance Besides gender, motivation is another individual differences (IDs) which was very important in explaining the SLL and SLA. Before going deeper into the claims made by the researcher, the understanding of the meaning and concept of motivation in language learning is very important. Motivation in general, was the forces that drive someone to do something or act in a particular way and it was known as the inner drive of a person. The only aspects of motivation that varies in individuals are the levels of motivation. In daily activities, there are forces that push an individual to act or do something and it goes the same with language learning.
Body Language and Nervousness Presentation skills are required in almost every aspect nowadays. Presenting information confidently and efficiently is a basic skill to get your audience’s attention, that’s explain why body language, signposting, and vanquish the nervousness, are the most important parts of all the communication skills to you as a public speaker. Thus, what are they and how important are they for your speeches or presentations? Body language is a process of communicating nonverbally where thoughts, intentions, or feelings are expressed by physical gestures, such as facial expressions, body posture, eye movement, touch and the use of space. Body language is a crucial form of communication; it can abet or aggravate your presentation.
Introduction The main foundation of employee-management relationship is psychological contract, which is comprised of beliefs about reciprocal obligations between two parties (Rousseau, 1989). Nonetheless, in most of the cases employees believe the contact was breached in one way or another. Robinson and Rousseau (1994) found that 55 per cent of their sample of managers believed that their organizations failed to fulfill one or more obligations. These thoughts or beliefs, whether true or not will affect the employee trust, job satisfaction, intentions to stay within the organization, sense of obligation, and performance. Because of the negative effects of the Psychological contract if left un-attended make it important to study the impact of
Jamaicans who specialize in different areas of the working class, such as business and finance, for example, would question what can a student with a psychology degree do in the business and finance sector that is profitable for them. Even though Helms & Rogers (2010) asserts that, the degree in psychology is applicable to any working environment, Brown (1983) highlights that these misconceptions manifest in introductory psychology students. Brown (1983) carried out an experiment with 79 students from the Oklahoma State University; they got 37 true/false statements to identify if they knew what the misconceptions were. From Brown’s (1983) study, students had a misconception about psychology in general because they were not going in depth. Since the students had a basic understating of what psychology is, then they would not comprehend the different areas of psychology.
Speaking: 1.1. The Definition of speaking: Speaking is an indispensable skill that language learners should master with the other language skills. It is defined as a convoluted process of sending and receiving messages through the use of verbal expressions, but it also includes non verbal symbols such as gestures and facial expressions. Hedge (2000) defines speaking as “a skill by which they [people] are judged while first impressions are being formed. "(p.261).That is to say speaking is an essential skill which deserves more attention in both first and second language because it reflects people’s thoughts and personalities.