Between 5000 and 2500 B.C., small kingdoms were set in the Middle Eastern parts from the Tigris-Euphrates River valley and then to the Nile valley. Those small kingdoms, named the “cradle of civilization”, were ruled by a king. The king was considered the head of power, making the laws and serving justice for any wrongdoings. The king was the absolute ruler and provider. This system of authority was one of the earliest contributions to an idea of law enforcement.
Mesopotamia is a Greek word that means “between the rivers” as it lies between the Tigris and Euphrates which flows through modern Iraq and Syria. Mesopotamia is considered a cradle of civilization. The cradle means “the place or region in with anything is nurtured in its early stages (Khan Academy). The land is made up of hills, plains, and mountains and the early settlers made a living as farmers and harvested timber, metal, and stone from nearby mountains. The lower areas of Mesopotamia were fertile land, with marshy, flat and wide plains, and as the river flowed down, settlers irrigated the land to grow various crops. The early settlers did not have many natural resources, so they had to stay in contact with neighboring settlers in order to get what they needed. Mesopotamia was a place where humans first formed civilization, developed and created governments. The Mesopotamian people were creative and used their
The Achaemenid Persian Empire was the first major global empire in history, spanning most of the civilized world and containing 44% of the world’s population at the time, a part that has never since been exceeded. The Persian Empire managed to successfully rule much of the Middle East, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia and Europe for hundreds of years. The empire was founded in 550 B.C.E. by Cyrus the Great, who was known for establishing some of the policies that made his empire successful. For example, he allowed the empire’s mixed population’s cultural and religious freedom. This made revolts infrequent and gave its many nationalities a stake in the empire’s continued existence; the Old Testament declared Cyrus the “Anointed of God.”
The Persian empire was the largest empire that the ancient world had seen and it made many political advancements. Their ruling class was peaceful and was ruled by Monarchs. They constructed a model government in which they created a tax-collection system, a postal system, and roads that are still used today. Similar to the Persians, the Romans had the same accomplishments and also allowed locals to keep their religion and to gain citizenship.
Agriculture allowed people to settle in one place and it was a key point for society's survival. The rivers of both civilizations provided water for fertile crops, unlike Mesopotamia, Egypt was fortunate enough to have a river that flooded the surrounding banks and leaving a rich soil for agriculture (the Gift of Nile). Mesopotamia flooded was unpredictable and sometimes chaotic, they had to struggle to irrigate their agricultural land. Although Mesopotamia began as a combination of city-states, it soon became a powerful main state, with remembrance to monarchy. Egypt had a Pharaoh, a transmitted position from father to son, establishing long-lasting dynasties. Mesopotamia had a king and the king was often deposed by invading forces due the poor area of defense geography. Both systems led to the creation of strict social classes, which usually included a class of priests, merchants, farmers and laborers.
The Persians have a unique form of government where the Persian people are divided and organized into groups based on families until one family unified them. The Persian Empire was divided into into 20 satrapies. Each satrapie was ruled by a satrap. Satrap means “protector of the kingdom” so they basically protected the kingdom by supplying security and soldiers for armies. The Persians believed in a monotheistic religion called Zoroastrianism created by
Computers, airplanes, space travel, and huge cities, how did we get here? It all started with the ancient river valley civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, and the Indus River Valley. When comparing these ancient civilizations what did they all have in common? What made them unique?
An empire is an extensive group of states or countries under a single supreme authority, and that is exactly what the Persian Empire was during the ancient world. First, King Cyrus united two colossal tribes: the Medes and Persians to build the Persian Empire, also known as the Achaemenid Empire. Before Cyrus became the King of Persia, he grew to be a great leader. Conquering other great empires helped him build most of his great superpower. Because of King Cyrus the Great, the Persian Empire, one of the great superpowers of the ancient world, has a lasting impact on us today.
During the Mesopotamia era (4,000 -2,350 B.C.E.), cities were built to help support the population, the inventions of everyday chores and issues (i.e. wheels, canals, pottery), and the rise of monarchy became the hierarchy and the most widespread form of government. Society was under a patriarchy – which the male population dominated political, social, and economic life.
Sumer and Egypt developed divergent forms of political organization because their surrounding environments imposed different structural forces on their societies. Within Sumer and Egypt, two unique forms of political organization developed. The development of these forms can be largely credited to influences on the initial creation and preservation of the two systems. Sumer and Egypt began with fundamentally different governmental structures, which, in part, impacted the unity of their nations as they developed. The river resources of each kingdom influenced the preservation of the political unity of each nation. Lastly, the boundaries of each of these nations played a large role in either supporting or undermining the unity of their governments.
The Persian Empire was based upon persuasion and the benefit of everyone versus raw power. King Cyrus had great power over the Persians tribe they were able to defeat the Lydian and take over all their gold mines, trading routes and land. This gave them the ability to build large empires on the new land and eventually others would make replicas of his empires. They provided land to feudal lords, but in return they had to provide them soldiers for the Persian army. Cyrus then built the foundation for a mail service and Darius had organized a communication network throughout the entire empire. Their religion was based on monotheism and they believed on only one god. The prophet Zoroaster taught people that the world was constantly being separated
Mesopotamia, currently referred to as Iraq, was one of the first civilizations to be established. The geography of this city was an important aspect when the Mesopotamians decided where to initiate a civilization. By looking at a topographical map one could see that Mesopotamia was surrounded by copious amounts of elevation, mountains or bluffs, but within the river valley region it was more flat than bumpy.
Persian dynasties had short lives during the Persian period. Assassinations and usurpers were commonplace in the royal courts. The first king to rule the empire was Cyrus II who was the legitimate heir of his father Cambyses I. Cyrus II’s son Cambyses II would not have the same luck of his ancestors. In 522 BCE Cambyses was overthrown when he was campaigning in Egypt. He returned to Pasargadae but was unable to defeat the new ruler. A son of a satrap, known as Darius would defeat the usurpers and establish his own dynasty. Darius I was one of the greatest Persian kings. He is often placed beside Cyrus II in terms of accomplishments and maintenance of the Persian empire. His rule shows the amount of effort he put into keeping the enemies of
In the year 3,500 B.C.E. the first civilizations appeared. There were seven major civilizations that were scattered around the world. There were civilizations in Sumer (southern Mesopotamia), the Nile River Valley (northeast Africa), Norte Chico (Central coastal Peru), Indus and Saraswati River Valleys (Pakistan), China, central Asia, and in the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The first civilizations tended to develop from earlier, competing chiefdoms that already had some social rankings and economic specializations. In these civilizations, there were a lot of differences such as; some were big, some were small, some had elaborate planned cities, some practiced irrigation agriculture, some died out, and some maintained impressive cultural continuity until modern times. (Strayer, Robert W. "Chapter 2 First Civilizations Cities, States, and Unequal Societies." Ways of the
Many violent acts that were wrongfully said to have been waged for a just and holy cause had ulterior, corrupt motives behind them that overrode the poor excuse of religion. The Spanish Inquisition’s ruthless and unjust persecution of those who questioned or did not follow Catholicism is commonly cited as one of history’s most despicable examples of violence caused by religious purpose, although that campaign was mostly headed by secular authorities with secular motives (Madden). The Catholic monarchs who called for the Spanish Inquisition sought to use religious persecution to increase terror and conformity among their people, to weaken threatening authorities, alliances, and ideologies, and to increase their absolute royal power (Ryan).