Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are the most common type of thermal equipment employed in chemical process industries. This widespread use can be justified by its versatility, robustness and reliability. Despite the technological advances of other exchanger types (e.g., plate-and-frame, spiral, lamella, etc. ), shell-and-tube heat exchangers will maintain a central position in industrial activities in the next years
The thermoregulatory system of the body, controlled by the central nervous system, tries to maintain the temperature of the core body around 37 oC. Thus, the core body temperature is relatively unaffected by the environmental conditions (temperature, air velocity, humidity). The temperature of the body shell, which involves the skin and the superficial tissues, is not inform and below the temperature of the core body. The temperature of the shell varies at different parts of the body: approx. 34 oC at the upper parts of the thighs and approx.
Rahul Kharat, Nitin Bhardwaj*, R.S. Jha have developed a correlation of heat transfer coefficient for helical coil heat exchanger to take into account of experimental and CFD results of different functional dependent variables such as gap between the concentric coil, tube diameter and coil diameter which strongly effects the heat treansfer within error band of 3-4%. The heat transfer coefficient is validated for a wide range of Reynolds number from 20,000 and 1,50,000 and specific ratio is from 0.55 to 2.25 that covers the most engineering helical coil heat exchanger
As noted before Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) is used for water storage tank manufacturing. The Linear low density polyethylene used for this process is a food grade material. We cannot use raw Linear low density polyethylene for this manufacturing process. This material should be processed withstand various conditions such as sharp sunlight. This Polyethylene material should not react or mix with water while using the tank for storing water.
These researches are similar to those found in patients with serious diseases or trauma, such as burn patients. Nowadays , exercise routines have not succeeded in maintaining muscle mass or strength of astronauts during spaceflight. Most of the exercises performed have been aerobic like using treadmill, stationary bicycle. Use of resistance exercise, in which a weight or another person provides resistance to exercise against, has been suggested to aid in the maintenance of both muscle and bone during flight. Ground-based studies of resistance exercise show that it may be helpful, not only for muscle but also for
Heating and cooling geothermal systems designed to provide area in all different conditions like heating cooling and humidity. Also they can provide water heating. Heating and cooling systems work by transferring heat by converting chemical energy like in a furnace. Each heating and cooling geothermal system has three subsystems. First they have a geothermal heat pump to transfer heat between the building and the fluid in the ground connection, ground connection for transferring heat between its fluid and the ground and also they have a distribution system to delivering cooling or heating to the building.
Heat stress is a condition in which the increase in core body temperature overwhelms the body’s homeostatic thermoregulation abilities, thus producing and absorbing more heat than the body could dissipate . This results in a wide spectrum of heat-related illnesses, ranging from minor conditions such as heat cramps and heat exhaustion to the more severe condition known as heat stroke. Heat stroke is defined as a core body temperature of beyond 40.60C, commonly associated with the dysfunction of the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the failure of multiple organ systems, which may ultimately result in disability or death.  Heat stress can be categorized into two different entities: classical and exertional. Classical or environmental heat
When human enter the cars, heat transfer can occur by conduction, convection, and radiation. Besides that, the thermal environment inside the car can be different over the time due some reasons such as interior volume is small, changing of climate frequently and etc. There are several factors which can determine the thermal comfort of the human body. The factors can be divided into two categories which are measurable factors and personal factors. Personal factors consist of clothing insulation and activity level meanwhile measurable factors include air temperature, air velocity, radiant temperature, and relative humidity.
1. introduction : Heat transfer: Heat transfer is the science that attempt to estimate the energy transfer that may take place between material bodies as a result of a temperature difference. Thermodynamics explains that this energy transfer is defined as heat. The science of heat transfer attempt to not only to explain how heat energy may be transferred, but also to estimate the rate at which the exchange will take place under certain specified conditions. The fact that a heat-transfer rate is the preferred objective of an analysis points out the difference between heat transfers and thermodynamics. Thermodynamics deals with systems in equilibrium; it may be used to estimate the amount of energy required to change a system from one equilibrium
The absorbed heat transferred to the air as it flows along the channel and its temperature going to be increases. This hot air can be used in several applications such as drying agricultural products, space heating and air conditioning, water heating and industrial process heating. There are so many advantages of solar air heater systems. Firstly, they are simple to maintain and design. After the set-up cost, a solar air heater system has no fuel expenditure.