Speaking: 1.1. The Definition of speaking: Speaking is an indispensable skill that language learners should master with the other language skills. It is defined as a convoluted process of sending and receiving messages through the use of verbal expressions, but it also includes non verbal symbols such as gestures and facial expressions. Hedge (2000) defines speaking as “a skill by which they [people] are judged while first impressions are being formed. "(p.261).That is to say speaking is an essential skill which deserves more attention in both first and second language because it reflects people’s thoughts and personalities.
The skill of listening includes some sub skills like perception skills, language skills, knowledge of the world, dealing with information and interaction with a speaker as White (1998, p.8-9) pointed out. Listening can be one way (transactional) or two way (interactional). The listening process includes bottom up and top-down listening. In bottom up process, the listener picks the message piece-by-piece and goes from parts to the whole for the meaning of what he listens. Dissimilarly, top down listening involves listener to use his schemata and prior knowledge to get to the meaning and it is a process of going from the whole to the parts (p. 40).
To be an effective listener, it requires full concentration of the speaker to determine the meaning. “Effective listening can affect one’s relationship satisfaction and can be a determining factor in whether someone is an effective communicator” (Quintanilla, K. M., & Wahl, S. T.
THE ANALYSIS OF HOMONYMS THAT FOUND IN “THE CORPUS OF CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN ENGLISH” I. INTRODUCTION Language is a tool for humans to communicate with each others. It uses sounds, signs, and symbols which have meaning. The people use language in daily conversation to share their ideas and information. Lado (1957:18) says that language is the system of speech sound by which human beings, communicate with one another.
With this, Widdowson (1983) strongly suggests that communicative competence be taught alongside with grammatical competence. To make the decision of teaching both linguistic and communicative competence clear, Widdowson distinguishes two aspects of performance: “usage” and “use”. He explains that “usage” makes evident the extent to which the language user demonstrates his knowledge of linguistic rules, whereas “use” makes evident the extent to which the language user demonstrates his ability to use his knowledge of linguistic rules for effective communication. He also distinguishes two aspects of meaning: “significance” and “value”. Significance is the meaning that sentences have in isolation from the particular situation in which the sentence is produced.
In Oral communication the speaker enjoys the advantage of the understanding the group that he is addressing. And he can immediate understand the group’s reaction and arrive at satisfactory conclusion. Components of Oral Communication: In the components of the oral communication, there are two main important things that we should keep in our mind. 1. Manner: it means how do we speak?
The two prominent schools of language during this period of time viewed pronunciation as essential component of English language teaching. In the audiolingual methodology, founded in the U.S, pronunciation gave high prominence like correct grammar. Bowen (1972) proved it and declared that pronunciation has a central role in the pedagogy and it should be severely taken. It emphasized traditional and conventional notions of pronunciation, pair drills in minimum level, phonemes, morphemes, and dialogue (Morley, 1991). The next one is flourished in British called situational language teaching.
The student should understand spoken words, through representation of answering, displaying a listening process. The necessity of both speaking and listening roles needs incorporation. 2. Provide students with topical related information, to enable the application of language with regards to world related topics, and develop long term memory and impact speaking performance. 3.
"Language is the expressions of ideas by means of speech sounds combined into words. Words are combined into sentences, this combination answering to those ideas into thoughts" -Henry sweet Language as defined a tool of Communication. Human beings can be in contact with each other. We are capable of swap over knowledge, ideas, outlook, wishes, threats, commands, thanks, promises, declarations, feelings – only our imagination sets confines. Communication by means of speech may be referred to as linguistic communication, the further customs talked about – laughing, smiling, shrieking, and so on – are forms of non-linguistic communication.
Instructors can only point the way and emphasize essential features such as person’s voice – how you say it is as important as what you say, body language – movements express your attitudes and thoughts, appearance – first impression influences the audience’s attitude to speakers. Actors, politicians and VIPs are taught how to manage their voices and body language and with a bit of practice. Any learner or student can cope with superficial features of public speaking. Matter-of-fact speaking uses background and linguistic knowledge to create a meaningful message, and it is directed at a specific audience in a one-to-one situation. There is a wealth of publications on the issues of making presentations and how to prepare one’s talk and deliver it.