Abstract: speckle noise reduction is one of the most important processes to enhance the quality of Ultrasound images. Image variance is a granular speckle or noise that exists inherently in and degrades image quality . Before using the images of the Ultrasound for diagnosis, the first step is to reduce the effect of speckle noise. Most speckle reduction techniques have been studied by researchers; but there is no comprehensive method that takes into account all the constraints. Filtering is one of the standard methods used to reduce speckle noise. This paper compares different speckle reduction filters and presents the performance analysis to reduce speckle noise in ultrasound images in terms of the evaluation parameters of MSE, PSNR.
Index*…show more content…*

This process is sometimes known as the wavelet shrinkage, as the detail coefficients shrunk towards zero. Three schemes to reduce the size of the wavelet coefficients, namely the keep-or-kill hard thresholding, soft thresholding shrinkage or kill introduced by [26] and the recent semi soft or firm threshold. The wavelet coefficient is reduced more efficiently if the coefficients are limited, that is, most of the coefficients are zero and a minority of coefficients with magnitude greater than can render the image [27]. The criteria for each scheme is described as follows. Since λ denotes the threshold limit, Xw denotes the input wavelet coefficients and wavelet coefficients denote Yt-out threshold, we define the following threshold*…show more content…*

Bayes rule contraction Based on Bayes' rule this is another technique to determine the threshold for image de-noising in the wavelet domain. Bays Rule allows us to write the expression in terms of the estimated probability density of the noise and the signal image. The threshold equation is given as: The Bayesian threshold described above provides a natural extension to incorporate higher order 3. Conclusion The results obtained for the various thresholding schemes are given in Table 2 [27]. From Table 2, it is observed that there is a significant improvement approach subband threshold in terms of parameters for assessing the quality of the image on the global threshold approach. This is because the threshold approach employs a subband adaptive threshold approach to respond to changes in the noise content of the different subbands. In contrast, the global threshold is based on a threshold of threshold Visu all subbands. The label (written in the parentheses) in Table 2 indicates the global (I) and sub-band threshold (II), Bayes (1) or Visu (2) rule of contraction and the disc (i), soft (ii) or soft (iii) semi threshold function used to generate the image. Optimal threshold scheme article of contraction and contraction function is determined by the criteria, namely increased SNR and PSNR values, minimum variance, MSE values and correlation coefficient is nearly equal to one. From Table 2, it is observed that the subband decomposition (II) with soft threshold (ii)

This process is sometimes known as the wavelet shrinkage, as the detail coefficients shrunk towards zero. Three schemes to reduce the size of the wavelet coefficients, namely the keep-or-kill hard thresholding, soft thresholding shrinkage or kill introduced by [26] and the recent semi soft or firm threshold. The wavelet coefficient is reduced more efficiently if the coefficients are limited, that is, most of the coefficients are zero and a minority of coefficients with magnitude greater than can render the image [27]. The criteria for each scheme is described as follows. Since λ denotes the threshold limit, Xw denotes the input wavelet coefficients and wavelet coefficients denote Yt-out threshold, we define the following threshold

Bayes rule contraction Based on Bayes' rule this is another technique to determine the threshold for image de-noising in the wavelet domain. Bays Rule allows us to write the expression in terms of the estimated probability density of the noise and the signal image. The threshold equation is given as: The Bayesian threshold described above provides a natural extension to incorporate higher order 3. Conclusion The results obtained for the various thresholding schemes are given in Table 2 [27]. From Table 2, it is observed that there is a significant improvement approach subband threshold in terms of parameters for assessing the quality of the image on the global threshold approach. This is because the threshold approach employs a subband adaptive threshold approach to respond to changes in the noise content of the different subbands. In contrast, the global threshold is based on a threshold of threshold Visu all subbands. The label (written in the parentheses) in Table 2 indicates the global (I) and sub-band threshold (II), Bayes (1) or Visu (2) rule of contraction and the disc (i), soft (ii) or soft (iii) semi threshold function used to generate the image. Optimal threshold scheme article of contraction and contraction function is determined by the criteria, namely increased SNR and PSNR values, minimum variance, MSE values and correlation coefficient is nearly equal to one. From Table 2, it is observed that the subband decomposition (II) with soft threshold (ii)

Related

- Good Essays
## Circular Dichroism

- 994 Words
- 4 Pages

Better the S/N is means better in limit of detection. A measurement of long period of time must be considered to determine the true average. The time is inversely proportional to S/N. thus, maximum S/N required for designing optimum circular dichroism spectrophotometer. S/N can be enhanced by increasing the light intensity of incident linearly-polarised, increasing the efficiency of the detector, or averaging and collecting data points in long time.

- 994 Words
- 4 Pages

Good Essays - Good Essays
## Titanium Dioxide Synthesis

- 885 Words
- 4 Pages

This means that it can lessen harmful pollutants that surround the environment. Due to this, several researches have already been conducted in some countries like Vietnam that focused on the discoveries on the benefits of using TiO2 (Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 2012). Graphene Oxide Combination of Titanium Dioxide and Graphene Oxide Synthesis Air pollution is an infintesimal issue that definitely caused different harmful effects in environment and humans. The researchers tried to explore possible ways of cleaning air through new ideas and discoveries. With the help of the related literature which served as the basis of the researchers, they were directed to the idea of the product, paint with titanium dioxide and graphene oxide.

- 885 Words
- 4 Pages

Good Essays - Good Essays
## Hydrated Lime Lab Report

- 1534 Words
- 7 Pages

The lowest aging index was found to be at 2% by weight of the binder. At this percentage, the decrease in long term aging index came out to be 30%. Hydrated lime was also tested with 67 - 22 binder. The greatest decrease in aging was found to be at 2% and 3% hydrated lime which is around 14%. The results can be seen in table 2.

- 1534 Words
- 7 Pages

Good Essays - Good Essays
## Linear Regression Analysis Essay

- 1392 Words
- 6 Pages

This is a predictive analysis which can explain the relationship between the different predictors and marital satisfaction. With this, the significant predictors will be determined, as well as the best predictor, to identify the strength of the effect of the predictors on marital satisfaction. These can all be determined by looking at the value of r or the multiple correlation coefficient, which can measure the quality or strength of prediction. The higher the value of r, the better the predictor. Aside from this, the value of r2 or the coefficient of determination will also be looked at to determine how close the data are to the fitted regression line.

- 1392 Words
- 6 Pages

Good Essays - Good Essays
## Stroop Effect Theory

- 1625 Words
- 7 Pages

The average difference in time in seconds between the two conditions was 5.29 (≈ 5.288), which demonstrates a significant difference. Furthermore, the scores of both the conditions occurred closed to their means, due to the standard deviations, which were

- 1625 Words
- 7 Pages

Good Essays - Powerful Essays
## Touch Threshold Case Study

- 1552 Words
- 7 Pages

Conclusion The first hypothesis of this experiment was ‘The longitudinal threshold has greater frequency of two point touch thresholds compared to lateral one’ which has been verified according to our results. We identified that frequency of touch threshold vary from person to person. As the distance increases the frequency for sensation of 1 or 2 point threshold also increases .hence our 2nd hypothesis is also verified which was ‘As the distance/length of two points’ increases, frequency of two point threshold

- 1552 Words
- 7 Pages

Powerful Essays - Better Essays
## Advantages And Disadvantages Of Plant-Wide Allocation Methods

- 750 Words
- 3 Pages

Step 5: Allocate overhead costs to products. The activity costs should be absorbed back into the individual products by multiplying the predetermined overhead rate for each activity by the level of cost driver activity used by the product Total activity costs can them be added to labour and material costs as normal.

- 750 Words
- 3 Pages

Better Essays - Good Essays
## Disruptive Behavior Assessment

- 1604 Words
- 7 Pages

Reinforcement in this behavior- related matter is a consequence that strengthens the future of an organism whenever the behavior ensues a particular antecedent. Its strengthening effect can be measured in terms of longer durations, higher behavior frequencies and shorter latency among others. Positive reinforcements are rewarding stimuli associated with an appreciated and appetitive behavior. A positive reinforcement takes place where a desirable stimulus or event is presented as the behaviors consequence resulting to an increase in behavior. For a negative reinforcement however, it occurs when the behaviors rate increases due to the removal of an aversive stimulus or event or the prevention of it from happening.

- 1604 Words
- 7 Pages

Good Essays - Good Essays
## Single Index Model And Capital Asset Pricing Model

- 1129 Words
- 5 Pages

The Single Index Model also greatly reduces the computations, since it eliminates the need to calculate the covariance of the securities within a portfolio using historical returns and the covariance of each possible pair of securities in the portfolio. With this equation, only the betas of the individual securities and the market variance need to be estimated to calculate covariance. Hence, the index model greatly reduces the number of calculations that would otherwise have to be made for a large portfolio of thousands of

- 1129 Words
- 5 Pages

Good Essays - Good Essays
## Innovation Diffusion Theory

- 1112 Words
- 5 Pages

Theory of reasoned action (TRA) has been widely applied in variety of research settings, from predicting the intention to seek psychological services for alcohol abuse (Lee, Kwon, & David, 2005), to predicting the consumption of fats and oils. The theory has also been used in the information system field and confirmed the ability of the model to predict behavioral intention to use a certain technology. Thus, it is reasonable to believe that theory of reasoned action will provide a very good foundation for this study to investigate intention to use e-banking services, because this study involve

- 1112 Words
- 5 Pages

Good Essays