In the first stage in the normal body, vitamin B12 binding proteins that found in saliva to enters the stomach. Then the stomach uses hydrochloric acid to liberate vitamin B12 from the proteins. However, in the first stage of pernicious anemia, the stomach excretes a small amount of hydrochloric acid. This leads to a failure of separate vitamin B12 from food proteins, which inhibit vitamin B12 from absorption. In addition, the lack of secretion of hydrochloric acid provides a suitable environment for a reproduction of gut bacteria.
Biuret test is adopted to quantify proteins in fluid by using a spectrophotometer. The biuret solution is a blue solution made up of sodium hydroxide and copper (II) sulfate which turns pink or violet in the presence of proteins, peptides and compounds containing 2 or more peptide linkage. A spectrophotometer measures the respective amounts of light consisting of different wavelengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution. Spectrophotometer works when white light is separated into lights of different wavelengths by a prism which different colors of light passes through the sample. The transmitted light strikes a photoelectric tube, converting light energy to electric current that is measured by a galvanometer.
The gel was submerged into Coomasie blue in order for the stain to bind with the proteins and was again destained afterwards to remove excess proteins. Figure 1.0 shows the results obtained from the SDS PAGE of the cellular fraction of a chicken liver after destaining. The software Gel Analyzer was used in order to determine the lanes, the bands and the molecular weight of each protein. The lanes found in the gel determine the different cellular fractions. The 1st lane found in the left most side is the protein ladder, which has known molecular weight and functions as the ‘ruler’ for the molecular weight of the unknowns.
Since lead was not present, the "Part A" test tube, which contained precipitate from the "Unknown 4" substance, was now to be tested for the presence of silver. The "Part A" test tube 's precipitate was first washed with deionized water to remove any contaminants. When 2 mL of 6M NH4OH was added, white precipitate deposited at the bottom of the test tube. After centrifuging the "Part A" test tube, the liquid was poured into a clean
This mixture was poured into the burette with the stopcock closed. The resin that had stuck to the sides of the burette was washed down by pipetting extra pH 3 citrate buffer along the sides. The column was tapped to ensure that the settled resin formed a level surface. After all of the resin settled, the buffer was drained into a waster beaker until the level of the buffer reached the top surface of the resin. For the remainder of the experiment, the top surface of the resin was not allowed to dry
1 “substrate” and another “ enzyme.” Instead of using the distilled water, this time you are going to use different pH buffer in the enzyme test tube. In the substrate tube, add 7 mL of distilled water, 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, and 0.2 mL of guaiacol for a total volume of 7.5 mL. For the enzyme tube, instead of distilled water add the pH solution (3) and 1.5 mL of peroxidase which equals a total volume of 7.5 mL. Use the dH2O syringe for our pH solution. To clean the syringe, flush it by drawing 6 mL of distilled water.
Leah Romero 10/30/2017 Conclusion Lab 3 Chem 102L In lab 3, fundamentals of chromatography, the purpose was to examine how components of mixtures can be separated by taking advantage of different in physical properties. A huge process in this lab was paper chromatography, which was used to isolate food dyes that are found in different drink mixes. The different chromatograms of FD&C dyes were compared to identify which dyes are present in each of the mixes. Chromatograms where made for the known FD&C and for the three Kool-Aid samples. The retention factor for each dye was calculated.
Objective The purpose of this lab was to demonstrate and view the osmotic process without using a microscope or chemical testing. In order to do so, background knowledge on the direction and flow of water is needed to identify the movement of osmosis. Hypothesis The hypotonic solution will cause the potato strip to become heavier relative to its previous mass, the hypertonic solution will cause a decrease in the potato strip’s mass, and the isotonic solution will result in no change in mass. Pre-Lab Questions Why is it so important not to eat or drink anything in the lab? It is important not to eat and/or drink anything in the lab because often times, many chemicals are clear, colourless and odourless.
You must first test the pH level of the amylase and starch solution using pH test strips, so that the experiment may be fair m. Then measure 3cm3 of amylase solution using the measuring cylinder, the pour it into the test tubes labeled A1-A5 n. Do the same for the starch solution but pour into the test tubes labeled S1-S5 o. Put test tubes A1 and S1 into the beaker labeled “cold water” p. Put test tubes A2 and S2 into the beaker labeled “normal water” q. Put test tubes A3 and S3 into the beaker labeled “warm water” r. Put test tubes A4 and S4 into the beaker labeled “very warm water” s. Put test tubes A5 and S5 into the beaker labeled “hot water” t. Mix the amylase solution with the starch solution when both are at the same temperature in each beakers (pour the amylase solution into the starch solution) u. Quickly add 3 drops of iodine solution into all 5 mixed amylase and starch solutions, while starting the stopwatch for each (should be 5 separate
The components of the sample will be separated on the basis of their ranging physical and chemical properties, imparting different affinities for the two phases. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was the first chromatographic method for assessing phospholipids, and is commonly used today.
As a result, you can enjoy a reduction in your double chin and a smoother-looking jaw line. 1 Uses This treatment is designed to target fat molecules so that they naturally start to break down. It is exclusively made for the fat that is located beneath the chin. Once Kybella has been injected, the fat cells are destroyed and are unable to accumulate any more fat. 2 Testimonials and Results
The unknown bacteria was then tested on multiple selective and differential media. Growth was present on the MacConkey Agar and the colonies were the same color as the plate, which told me my bacteria was gram negative and did not ferment lactose. There was no growth on the Mannitol Salt Agar, and this told me the unknown was not salt tolerant and did not
The DNA will then run through a UV-visible spectrophotometer to test the absorbance of the extracted DNA. Both DNA and RNA has a maximum absorbance of 260 nm. The absorbance of 260/280 should be in between 1.8 and 1.9 to represent a pure sample of DNA. If the reading is higher than 1.9 then there is RNA contamination and if the reading is less than 1.8 there is protein contamination.
I hypothesized that the Conodoguinet Creek is polluted. Through my research I have found that the Conodoguinet Creek is not polluted. One reason it is not polluted is because most of the macroinvertebrates and crustaceans we found in the creek are pollution sensitive creatures. Another reason the creek is not polluted is the level of acidity and alkalinity is 7 which is a healthy number on the pH scale. If the acidity or alkalinity levels were high scientists would have to find a way to neutralize the acid and alkaline.