to the hospitals, nursing home establishment and also the environment. Healthcare Waste Management means the managing of waste generated by the hospitals using such processes which can check and prevent the spread of infections. Inadequate awareness regarding HWM in developing countries is resulting in dumping of hospital waste with general municipal waste. Such lapses in HWM are most important factors leading to ineffective management of hospital waste in most of the poor and developing countries. In Pakistan, a large part of hospital waste is also dumped with municipal waste.
However, this could not be more wrong. More antibiotics is not the answer, this will just worsen the already terrible situation. Drug-resistant infections take a huge toll in the United States and across the world. Just one organism known as, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), kills more Americans every year than emphysema, HIV/AIDS, Parkinson’s disease and homicide COMBINED. Almost 2 million Americans per year develop hospital acquired infections, resulting in 99,000 deaths.
Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease About 1 in 10 people have some degree of chronic kidney disease, and millions of patients die prematurely of kidney-related complications. While kidney diseases can affect people of all ages and races, communities which have high rates of diabetes and high blood pressure have a higher risk of chronic kidney disease. In Hong Kong in particular, Chronic kidney disease is listed the No. 7 leading cause of death. However, there is a lack of awareness and knowledge of chronic kidney diseases among the whole world.
Cardiac surgeries are considered as a big problem around the world; because of the consequences of surgical site infections. There are several risk factors which may lead to surgical infections. However, the factors are categorized into three groups of preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that may lead to microbial surgical site infections in patients with post cardiac surgery. The medical (morbidity and mortality) and financial consequences in association with surgical site infections are very significant and considerable. But, the use of standard sterilization protocols and accurate surgical methodologies may help to reduce the microbial infections in patients with cardiac surgery.
Also according to the WHO reports in 2005 more than 4.4 million nosocomial infections occur annually in the World (8). Nosocomial infections are caused by bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens, which most common pathogens are: staphylococcus, pseudomonades, E.coli, mycobacteria, Candida, aspergelosis, fozarium, trycosporum and malasizia. All of pathogens have role in increase of contagious and mortality of patients in hospitals(8). The most prevalent infections based on NISs (Nosocomial infection surveillance system) includes; wound infection, bloodstream infection(BSI), Urinary tract infection (UTI), respiratory infection (7) . UTI is the most common nosocomial infection in the World (about 40% out of all nosocomial infections).
Scientists do a lot of experiments to find the causes of lupus nephritis unfortunately, its causes still unknown. As a result, there are many factors that can play a role in causing lupus nephritis; for example, toxic chemicals or pollutants in the environment (factory smoke, car gases), viruses, infections and family history. In addition, certain lupus drugs can also harm the kidneys and lead to lupus nephritis. Since lupus nephritis is a serious disease, it has many remarkable effects on the
INTRODUCTION Medication error occurs frequently in the world. Across Malaysia, 2572 cases of medication errors were reported and it was identified as the main adverse event issue that impacted patient outcomes in 2009 (New Straits Times 16 March 2010, p, 23). According to Fathi et al. (2014) a number of studies have reported the prevalence of medication errors in the ICU, but limited evidence is available regarding the cause(s) of these errors and whether these causes differ from those outside the ICU. Critically ill patients admitted to an ICU experience, on average, 1.7 medical errors each day, and many patients suffer a potentially life-threatening error during their stay (Rothchild et al.
Recently, there has been an increased incidence of organ failure along with a staggering lack of organ donors. This dilemma has created a public health crisis. “As a result there has been a major increase in the number of patients on transplant waiting lists as well as in the number of patients dying while on the waiting list (Abouna).” This public health crisis has robbed hundreds of thousands of patients a better quality of life, as well as a substantial amount of money for medical care (Abouna). “90 percent of the patients on the transplant list are actually waiting for a kidney. Patients are dying every day because we don’t have enough organs to go around (Atala).” With the proper funding, thousands of people would have the possibility of a better quality of life.
Many of them die due to lack of proper treatment and awareness. It was observed in 1975 that β-thalassemia is the most common hereditary disease in India. The proper treatment of a thalassemic child includes regular blood transfusion to maintain haemoglobin at 10, chelation therapy with desferal to maintain iron levels and reduce iron load. They should also be given hepatitis B and pneumococcal vaccine. The total cost is about 1.25 lakhs
This is a very sensitive field of treatment as a lot of people either die or most of them get paralysed due to unavailability of proper treatment and procedures. In this regard, nanotechnology is being given special attention now a day. By incorporating nanomedicine into the management of neuronal injury and disease would probably drive nanomedicine into the