PI value has been considered a useful tool for accurately monitoring changes in peripheral perfusion in real time caused by certain anesthetics. An increased PI is an early indicator of the pharmacologic effect of the anesthesia, often occurring before the onset of the anesthetic effect providing the physician an early indicator of successful anesthetic administration. In the neonatal acute care setting, a low PI has been shown to be an objective indicator of severe illness. In conjunction with oxygen saturation and pulse rate, a diminished PI becomes an important indicator of a critical state of neonatal health. As such, the PI may be important to consider as a standardized, objective measure in addition to conventional subjective means of assessing the state of the neonate.
Breath sounds can divided into three type, normal, abnormal and diminished (Alexandra Hough, 2001). Breath sound is useful in diagnosing or monitoring respiratory disease and airway abnormalities, such as asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia and so on. It can be auscultate across chest wall with a stethoscope. A physician can auscultate breath sounds to detect
Predominant glottic view obtained in classic LMA, Ambu Aura40 and in I-gel was 2 (50%), 1 (63%) and 3(40%) respectively. Graph 2: Showing glottic view seen through fibreoptic bronchoscope. Oropharyngeal leak pressure Oropharyngeal leak pressures are commonly performed with the LMA to indicate the degree of airway protection, the feasibility for positive pressure ventilation and the likelihood for successful supraglottic airway placement.14 We found a higher mean OPLP with I-gel 36.23 ± 3.00 and least with LMA classic 30.90 ± 2.15 which was of statistical significance p=0.000 (Table-5, graph-3). Patient Group Mean Oropharyngeal Leak Pressure (cm H2O) LMA classic 30.90 ± 2.15 Ambu Aura40 33.77 ± 4.5 I-gel 36.23 ± 3.00 Table 5: Oropharyngeal leak pressure (OPLP) measured. Graph 3: Showing oropharyngeal leak pressure (OPLP) in study groups.
The phenomenon of vein pulsation The venous retinal pulsation is occurring due to the blood pressure difference in the central retinal vein. The pressure difference occurs due to the condition of the systole and diastole pressure. The following are experimental studies carried out so far on physician experiment set-ups and existing theoretical models considered, wave surface with the Pulsations phenomena of collapsible vessels in the body deal. Few of these models are based on the anatomical and physiological conditions of the CRV, which is why most only the effect must be interpreted. Theoretical models Model according to DN Levine The theoretical model by Levine relates the phenomenon of pulsating Vein on the observed pulsations of the CRV.
It serves as a guiding tool during stent placement and peripheral interventions. It allows the assessment of possible intra - or postoperative complications. With the aid of IVUS, disease progression and regression can be determined, cardiac transplant status can be evaluated and IVUS can be utelized in clinical research. The most common IVUS imaging is done on the coronary arteries. EUS-guided angiotherapy makes intravascular therapy possible and is done in conjunction with real time ultrasound investigation of thrombosis and hemostasis (Buthani,
Heart rate is a measurement used in a variety of studies for a variety of reasons. The heart’s function is solely to pump blood around the body, so nutrients can be transported and used where they are needed1(p360). Heart rate has been shown to have connections to and be an indicator of general health and abilities thus it is an appropriate variable to consider3,4. The ECG is a trusted and accurate machine used in many studies to determine the heart rate of an individual5,6,7. It has been used as a screening tool for Sudden Cardiac Death with controversial success5.
By increasing inspiratory time, mean airway pressure, a primary determinant of oxygenation, is also increased. The use of inverse ratio ventilation to increase mean airway pressure is an option to increasing mean airway with higher inflation pressures, which may be associated with less volutrauma and barotrauma. This mode of ventilation maybe tried in patients who cannot be oxygenated with conventional mechanical ventilation and PEEP or in the presence of prohibitively high peak airway pressures. Inverse ratios of up to 3:1 have been utilized” (Rello & Leeper,
FETAL DISTRESS The terms fetal distress and birth asphyxia are broad terms which may point at an adverse condition affecting the fetus. Fetal distress is a a term used to describe a situation where the clinician feels that the fetus is hypoxic or acidotic or is at risk of becoming so and this concern is significant enough to warrant intervention, usually in the form of operative delivery100. Fetal asphyxia is clinically defined as progressive hypoxaemia and hypercapnia with significant metabolic acidemia100. In practice, obstetricians put great emphasis on monitoring of the fetal heart rate patterns as the main means of assessing fetal well- being in labour, whether done by intermittent auscultation or continuous electronic methods. However,
Abstract— Brain hemorrhage is a type of stroke, which occurs due to artery bursting in the brain, causing bleeding in the surrounded tissues. Diagnosing brain hemorrhage, which is mainly through the examination of a CT scan enables the accurate prediction of disease and the extraction of reliable and robust measurement for patients in order to describe the morphological changes in the brain as the recovery progresses. The aim of this project is to help radiologist as well as medical students in diagnosis of brain hemorrhage in more refined manner by feeding CT images & identify the type of brain hemorrhage using watershed algorithm along with artificial neural network. Keywords - Computed tomography (CT), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Back Propagation Network (BPN), Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM). I.
Over the years, the cardiac catheterization has become essential in the evaluation and treatment of cardiac disease, cardiac catheterization indication have modified from a predominantly low risk profile of patients to include complex coronary lesions and high risk clinical conditions, including acute coronary syndromes(ACS), Considering the significant changes in the profiles of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization procedures. Moreover, the complication rates of the procedure can be anticipated to show comparable changes. Most of the studies reported that, complication rates of cardiac catheterization have been restricted largely to the practice prevalent several years earlier in recent times; the scenario of cardiac catheterization
Explain why this increased venous pressure causes net filtration to increase in the hepatic capillaries, leading to ascites (swollen and fluid-filled interstitial space of the abdomen). • In alcoholic cirrhosis, the portal vein becomes scarred and blocked, causing an increase in hydrostatic pressure. Which leads to an increase in hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries. Alcoholic cirrhosis also causes the liver to under produce albumin. This lowers osmotic pressure in the vasculature, enhancing filtration out of the
Why is Al’s AP chest diameter increased and how does this correspond to the PFTs? Al 's AP chest diameter is increased ("barrel chest") from the chronic air trapping. Excess air is trapped in the lungs, which is shown in his PFTs results (NIH, 2016). The lungs are hyperinflated, which is why the RV and FRC are increased. COPD pathophysiologically prevents the trapped air from being breathed out, which is indicated by the decreased VC.
PVR assesses the right ventricular afterload, and SVR indexed to BSA estimates left ventricular afterload (Morton & Fontaine, 2013). Contractility is not directly determined; however, stroke volume index for right and left ventricles is used to estimate
The size of the embolus will determine how much of the pulmonary vascular system is affected and the seriousness of the pulmonary oedema (Peate, 2014). When a particular blood vessel is occluded, there will be an increase in hydrostatic and colloid pressure which will cause vascular permeability leading to blood moving into the interstitial space of the capillaries and alveolar via a concentration gradient (Peate, 2014). This will affect alveolar perfusion causing reduced oxygenation of pulmonary blood returning to the heart thus affecting myocardial and systemic
Introduction to Atrial Fibrillation The most prevalent clinical arrhythmia is atrial fibrillation, which can be defined as irregular heart beats caused by uncoordinated activation of the atria. Atria are the two upper chambers of the heart. During atrial fibrillation, the cardiac muscles that make up the walls of these atrial chambers, receive disorganized activation signals. This causes them to fibrillate, which means rapid and irregular contractions. This results in inefficient pumping of blood from the atria into the ventricles, the lower two chambers.