There are many different types of birth defects. This paper will discuss one of the more common, spina bifida, which is a type of defect most often referred to as a neural tube defect. Spina bifida directly affects the spine and is often noticed at birth. Spina bifida does not have a specific location but can appear at any location along the spine. The neural tubes are supposed to be closed; in spina bifida this process does not happen, and damage results to the nerves and spinal cord.
Intussusception is a surgical emergency that most commonly affects infants between five and nice months of age. However, neonatal intussusception is a very rare entity and is not well described. It represents 3% of the causes of neonatal intestinal obstruction and 0.3% of all cases of intussusception. 1, 2 The presentation of neonatal intussusception can be vague and misleading due to the rarity of the disease and the non-specificity of its symptomatology.3 The presentation is usually in the form of vomiting and abdominal pain which can mimic necrotizing enterocolitis and may lead to delay in diagnosis. This happens because in intussusception peristalsis is disturbed and lymphatic and venous obstruction occurs causing ischemia.
Introduction Kyphosis is a spinal disorder involving an excessive outward curve that causes an abnormal rounding of the upper back. It occurs when the spinal bones (vertebrae) in the upper back (thoracic spine) become wedge-shaped and cause deformity. Kyphosis is sometimes called dowager's hump, hunchback, or roundback. It is most common among elderly people, but can happen at any age. There are four main types of kyphosis: Postural kyphosis.
With a slit-lamp associ- ated injuries such as corneal abrasions, lens dislocations, hyphema, commotio retinae, and retinal detachments. Assessment of extraocular movement is even more impor- tant in children due to the so-called white eye syndrome, in which the eye looks otherwise completely normal except for extraocular movement limitation. Since greenstick fractures are more common in children, these fractures causing a trapdoor effect and muscle impingement are more likely to be seen in the pediatric population (Figure
According to WebMD, the first type of spinal muscular disease is the most serious variant due to the fact that most children with type 1 fail to live past two years of age from breathing issues because the muscles that control breathing are feeble. Symptoms of type 1 include limp arms and legs as well as the trouble swallowing. Moreover, type 2 spinal muscular atrophy occurs with children from six to eighteen months old. According to the National Organization for Rare Diseases, children with type 2 are able to sit on their own, but fail to walk more than 10 feet, however, once they mature to a teenager, they will be unable to sit independently. A symptom common for people diagnosed with type 2 is the fingers quivering (National Organization for Rare Diseases).
70% of CP cases have spastic cerebral palsy which is the most common type and is caused by damage to the brain’s motor cortex. Spastic cerebral palsy can affect either one side of the body, commonly known as spastic hemiplegia, or both sides of the body. Spastic diplegia causes stiffness mostly in the legs, the arms may be affected, but not as severely. (Spastic Cerebral Palsy.., n.d, p.1) Both of these types involves stiff movements that are exaggerated, caused by increased muscle tone. It causes difficulty preforming tasks such as getting dressed, walking and handling objects.
This can affect babies if their diaphragm does not develop properly during their foetal stage, but it can also affect adults. - Muscle hernia: these occurs when part of a muscle pushes through the abdomen. They can occur in leg muscles as a result of sport injuries. Hernia can occur in any part of the body, but they mostly develop in the areas of the body between the chest and hips. Some of the most common types are discussed
Usually only one side of your body is affected” (2). There are several possible causes of sciatica, “the sciatic nerve may be injured because of a herniated (slipped) disc, dislocated hip, and osteoarthritis of the lumbosacral spine” (1). I personally experienced sciatic pain during one of my pregnancies which is common because of the increased, “pressure from the uterus during pregnancy”(1). References: 1. Tortora, G. & Derrickson, B.
For instance, it is more widespread in Asian women than white women, while it is less popular in African-Caribbean females. A third cause is problems with the immune system. The immune systems of some females lack the ability to fight off endometriosis. As a result, the body cannot recognize or damage the endometrial tissues. Fourth, environmental causes may trigger on endometriosis.
Children born with thalassemia major are normal at birth, but develop severe anemia during the first year of life. Other symptoms can include: Bone deformities in the face, fatigue, growth failure, shortness of breath and yellow skin (jaundice).Severe thalassemia can cause early death (between ages 20 & 30 years)
The second type of spina bifida is called Closed neural tube defects.this type has a varietal group of defects that affect the spineal cord. This type of spina bifida is shown by the malformation of fat, bone, or meninges. Usually, there aren’t any symptoms. Meningocele is the third type of spina bifida. This third type can result in complete paralysis, along with bowel or bladder dysfunction.
Hirschsprung’s Disease is a congenital condition that affects the colon which is also known as the large intestine. It is a developmental disorder of the enteric nervous system that is characterized by the absence of ganglion cells in the last part of the colon. This disease occurs in 1 out of every 5,000 live births. It affects newborns, babies and toddlers because it can show late symptoms during a child’s toddler’s years. Many parents believe Hirschsprung is just a fancy word for constipation.
Infants that are born before thirty-seventh week (premature infants) of pregnancy are preterm and are at a much higher risk of complications that result from the brain damage. Medical literature consists of a variety of other factors that may contribute towards neural damage, for example, abnormal development of the brain, anoxia (absence of oxygen) in the near-drowning situation, excessive neonatal asphyxia (refers to the situations when oxygen is absent for long periods of time or the presence of excess carbon dioxide which can cause tissue damage in the body), choking abuse, intracranial bleeding (excess blood in the skill pushing against brain tissue causing severe trauma), pregnancy related complications, neurotrophic virus (viruses that are capable of entering nervous system and infecting brain tissue, brain trauma and various other infectious agents (Levitt, 2011, p. 3). It has been suggested that the neuronal descending pathway from the brain, rubrospinal tract (RST) which normally mediated voluntary movement control, imperfectly overcompensates when the corticospinal tract (CST), which is the primary motor descending pathway, is damaged or injured (Cahill-Rowley & Rose, 2013). It is often possible that the cause is not certain, and in most cases knowing the cause and history of the individual with cerebral palsy may not be helpful for the physician or the
Introduction: Myelomeningocele , commonly known as Spina Bifida, is a birth defect in which the spinal cord does not develop properly due to incomplete closure of the neural tube at 28 days of gestation. The overlying bones and skin are incompletely formed and the underdeveloped area of the spinal cord is exposed on the surface of the back. It is the most common multicomplex birth defect affecting the central nervous system that results in permanent disability . With advances in treatment modalities, technologies and scientific breakthroughs, persons with spina bifida in the US are living well into adulthood. Myelomeningocele management includes life -long comprehensive neurologic, urologic, musculoskeletal , skin and habiliation management.
This syndrome is caused by damage inflicted to the anterior aspect of the spinal cord or as a result of decreased vascular supply. Brown-Sequard syndrome occurs in the presence of damage to one side of the spinal cord more so than the other, resulting in ipsilateral loss of motor function and sensory loss too. Posterior cord syndrome is very rare and the cause is most commonly found with chronic myelopathy resulting in loss of vibration and proprioception below the level of