The 1:1 hexane to ethyl acetate solvent resulted in the best separation because it not only showed extra spots that the other solvent mixtures did not have, but also the 4 spots were relatively dispersed with Rf values at 0.77, 0.56, 0.27, and 0.10 (Figure 2). Missing spots were also noted on the hexane only TLC plate. The orange eluent was ultimately chosen as our major product because it had significantly different TLC results than the 3 yellow eluents with the same Rf of 0.23 (Figure 3). The percent yield for this purification method was 248% and the extrapolated percent purified yield was around 135 %, which are both erroneously high. These high percent yield may be due to extra water weight or not fully evaporated
In this experiment, 293 mg of aldehyde was weighted for method 1 instead of 250 mg and. Although .7906 mg of phosphonium salt was added, this probably was not enough to complete the reaction. The only significant change throughout method was 1 was that the yellowish mixture became slightly lighter. However, it was found that after vacuum filtration, there was some white and yellow
Substrate concentration basically means the amount used for the substrate. The substrate in our experiment was 0.1% hydrogen peroxide. The 0.1% is the concentration amount. Just like temperature and pH, substrate concentration can speed the reaction only up to a certain limit. When we mixed pH 3 enzyme tube with substrate tube, we used 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, but if we were to increase the amount, then the experiment would have been faster.
While the absolute value of slope of the graph for the solution containing only 0.5 mL mitochondrial suspension was 4 x 10-4, the slope of the graph for the solution containing 0.5 mL of mitochondrial suspension, 0.5 mL of 100 mM succinate, and 0.5 mL of 100 mM malonate was 7 x 10-4. Although this change is not large, it does demonstrate that the addition of TCA cycle intermediates has an impact on reaction rate. The decrease in the rate of reaction of the sample containing 0.5 mL of mitochondrial suspension, 0.5 mL of 100 mM succinate, and 0.5 mL of 100 mM malonate as compared to the sample with only 0.5 mL of mitochondrial suspension and 0.5 mL of 100 mM succinate shows that the addition of malonate inhibits the reduction of
Based on the references take, a mixture of extra virgin and light olive oils would most likely have features resembling regular olive oil. It would have a lighter but still bright yellow color, and a wavelength and absorbancy between the ranges for extra virgin and light olive oil. Without the use of a spectrometer, the concentration of an unknown solution of nickel (II) nitrate could be estimated based on the coloring. The more concentrated the solution the darker green in appears and, vise versa, the less concentrated the lighter the solution will become as it is diluted by water. You could use Beer’s Law to calculate the unknown concentration of cobalt (II) nitrate as Beer’s Law states that a solutions concentration is proportional to the solutions concentration.
These two positive test allowed for a GC spectrum to be obtained, if the IR confirmed there was no water in the final compound. The IR spectrum obtained, did contain a peak at 3388 cm-1, indicating an alcohol group present, but the degree of the peak was so small that a GC spectrum could be obtained. This peak could have represented water present in the solution, but its presence was so low that it would not affect the
The literature melting point range of methyl trans-cinnamate is ~34-38oC (Aldrich).4 The obtained melting point of the crude was 34.5-35.5oC, which is a highly narrow range of less than 1oC difference and it also falls within the expected melting point range. Hence, the crystal lattice structure of the product is largely intact, requiring an even amount of thermal energy to melt the sample. The experimental melting point range indicates the crude product is relatively pure with minimal impurities. The percent yield was satisfactory, having a 68% yield. To optimize this yield, consider the steps in how the reagents are introduced to the reaction mixture in terms.
Two significant facts about the mercury compound found in Thimerosal make it safer; the incredibly small concentration of mercury, and the use of the ethylmercury. Firstly, the highest concentration of thimerosal that is used in vaccine preservations is only 0.01%, meaning that only 25 micrograms of mercury are present per 0.5 mL dose.That is extremely inconsequential when compared to the real sources of mercury pollution; air and water emissions from gold-mining Chloralkali plants and the discharge of dental amalgams. This small amount of mercury is also less likely to make its way into the environment in the first place, due to the nature of vaccines as a product to not be so easily discarded in the environment, in contrast to mercury products such as batteries. Secondly, the use of methylmercury means that subsequent pollution of the environment with the drug will not lead to bioaccumulation, (the presence of large amounts of pollutants in top consumers of the food chain) in ecosystems. This is because, unlike other types of mercury compounds like methylmercury, ethylmercury can clear through the bloodstream extremely quickly, meaning that pollution of the environment with Thimerosal will not lead to negative effects on the tertiary consumers of ecosystems (such as large fish).
Solutions such as isotonic saline or Ringer Lactate are least harmful when absorbed into the circulation. Although sterile water has many qualities of an ideal irrigating fluid, its disadvantages are extreme hypotonicity, shock, and kidney failure. Sterile water is an inexpensive alternative to isotonic saline for irrigation during PNL. Although we did not find any difference between the two irrigation fluids with regard to the safety for smaller calculi, its safety has to be confirmed with larger studies, especially for large