The 1:1 hexane to ethyl acetate solvent resulted in the best separation because it not only showed extra spots that the other solvent mixtures did not have, but also the 4 spots were relatively dispersed with Rf values at 0.77, 0.56, 0.27, and 0.10 (Figure 2). Missing spots were also noted on the hexane only TLC plate. The orange eluent was ultimately chosen as our major product because it had significantly different TLC results than the 3 yellow eluents with the same Rf of 0.23 (Figure 3). The percent yield for this purification method was 248% and the extrapolated percent purified yield was around 135 %, which are both erroneously high. These high percent yield may be due to extra water weight or not fully evaporated
Although .7906 mg of phosphonium salt was added, this probably was not enough to complete the reaction. The only significant change throughout method was 1 was that the yellowish mixture became slightly lighter. However, it was found that after vacuum filtration, there was some white and yellow
The 0.1% is the concentration amount. Just like temperature and pH, substrate concentration can speed the reaction only up to a certain limit. When we mixed pH 3 enzyme tube with substrate tube, we used 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, but if we were to increase the amount, then the experiment would have been faster. Our
While the absolute value of slope of the graph for the solution containing only 0.5 mL mitochondrial suspension was 4 x 10-4, the slope of the graph for the solution containing 0.5 mL of mitochondrial suspension, 0.5 mL of 100 mM succinate, and 0.5 mL of 100 mM malonate was 7 x 10-4. Although this change is not large, it does demonstrate that the addition of TCA cycle intermediates has an impact on reaction rate. The decrease in the rate of reaction of the sample containing 0.5 mL of mitochondrial suspension, 0.5 mL of 100 mM succinate, and 0.5 mL of 100 mM malonate as compared to the sample with only 0.5 mL of mitochondrial suspension and 0.5 mL of 100 mM succinate shows that the addition of malonate inhibits the reduction of
Solid #5 is silica sand based on the fact that it isn’t soluble in water. We also used our international observations(appearance) and agreed that it was a match. Even though the density of silica sand is 2.65g/cm3 and ours was 1.3g/ cm3 we agreed that we
Based on the references take, a mixture of extra virgin and light olive oils would most likely have features resembling regular olive oil. It would have a lighter but still bright yellow color, and a wavelength and absorbancy between the ranges for extra virgin and light olive oil. Without the use of a spectrometer, the concentration of an unknown solution of nickel (II) nitrate could be estimated based on the coloring. The more concentrated the solution the darker green in appears and, vise versa, the less concentrated the lighter the solution will become as it is diluted by water.
The literature melting point range of methyl trans-cinnamate is ~34-38oC (Aldrich).4 The obtained melting point of the crude was 34.5-35.5oC, which is a highly narrow range of less than 1oC difference and it also falls within the expected melting point range. Hence, the crystal lattice structure of the product is largely intact, requiring an even amount of thermal energy to melt the sample. The experimental melting point range indicates the crude product is relatively pure with minimal impurities. The percent yield was satisfactory, having a 68% yield. To optimize this yield, consider the steps in how the reagents are introduced to the reaction mixture in terms.
Two significant facts about the mercury compound found in Thimerosal make it safer; the incredibly small concentration of mercury, and the use of the ethylmercury. Firstly, the highest concentration of thimerosal that is used in vaccine preservations is only 0.01%, meaning that only 25 micrograms of mercury are present per 0.5 mL dose. That is extremely inconsequential when compared to the real sources of mercury pollution; air and water emissions from gold-mining Chloralkali plants and the discharge of dental amalgams. This small amount of mercury is also less likely to make its way into the environment in the first place, due to the nature of vaccines as a product to not be so easily discarded in the environment, in contrast to mercury products such as batteries. Secondly, the use of methylmercury means that subsequent pollution of the environment with the drug will not lead to bioaccumulation, (the presence of large amounts of pollutants in top consumers of the food chain) in ecosystems.
The irrigation fluid used should always be normal isotonic saline 0.9% unless diathermy is used.32 Ideally, the Irrigation solutions for endourology should be isotonic, non-hemolytic, nontoxic, transparent, easy to sterilize, and inexpensive. However, such a solution is not yet available. Solutions such as isotonic saline or Ringer Lactate are least harmful when absorbed into the circulation. Although sterile water has many qualities of an ideal irrigating fluid, its disadvantages are extreme hypotonicity, shock, and kidney failure. Sterile water is an inexpensive alternative to isotonic saline for irrigation during PNL.
In order for a substance to be pure, its melting point, from start to finish, must stay within 3 oC or 4 oC because more pure organic substances melt within the range of 1 oC – 2 oC. (Craine et al., 2012) The range of the crude was 5.3 oC, a clear indication of impurity. In addition, it was well below the literature melting point of 9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-α,β-succinic anhydride at 262 oC – 264 oC, which was another indication of impurity. However, the pure product had a melting point of 260.3 oC – 263.9 oC, which was much closer to the melting point of the pure product and stays within the range of 3 oC – 4 oC, which could indicate that there was still a small amount of impurity, but the product attained was close to a pure
Fractional distillation was the better technique of separating toluene and cyclohexane than simple distillation because it had a greater percent toluene difference for fractions 2 and 4. Fraction 2 composed of mostly cyclohexane with a toluene percentage closer to 0% compared to simple distillation, while fraction 4 composed of mostly toluene with 100% toluene. The 100% toluene in fraction 4 indicated that the compound was purer in fractional distillation than in simple distillation, which had less percent
The use of diction and syntax in this section creates an irritating atmosphere to stress the annoyance of the Columbian Guards. Larson’s evocative word choice for “disease” emphasizes the visitors' contagious curiosity as if they were part of a newspaper press. This displays to the readers as a stressful event for the Columbian Guards as they’re continuously “hammered with questions.” Furthermore, syntax was used in “the fair was so big, so beyond grasp” to create a fragmented and tiring effect for the readers due to the unimaginable pool of people inside of the fair. The fragmented phrases were embedded again in “it was a disease, a rhetorical smallpox” to convey the Columbian Guards harsh depiction of the visitors' nuisances.
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