The vertebrae are numbered and divided into several regions; which correspond to the curves of the spinal column: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, and coccyx as shown in figure (2.1). The cervical spine has 7 vertebrae and constructs the neck. The thoracic spine contains 12 vertebrae which the ribs attach to, and the lumbar spine has 5 bones which make the lower back. The sacrum consists of 5 bones which are fused or stuck
The pharynx is a muscular tube that extends supero-inferiorly from the base of the cranium to the level of the inferior surface of the body of the sixth cervical vertebra. The pharynx lies dorsal to the nasal cavity, the oral cavity and the larynx. The nasal portion of the nasopharynx has bony elements in its wall and thus it is rigid, whereas the pharyngeal portion is contractile as a result of the muscular nature of its wall.4 The relationship between craniofacial morphology and respiratory function has been studied extensively since the beginning of 20th century54. Some authors claim that patients with deficient respiratory functions present with lip incompetency, increased anterior face height, maxillary constriction, protruded maxillary
Lingula and the central lobule separated by the precentral fissure, central lobule and the culmen separated by the preculminate sulcus. The hemispheric connection of the central lobule is known as the ala and that of the culmen is known as the anterior quadrangular lobule. The lingula is generally considered not to have any hemispheric extension(27–29). The paramedian sulcus on the anterior lobe is shallow and there is a smooth transition from vermis to the hemisphere hence the hemispheric portion of the anterior lobe is sometimes called simple lobule(27). At the paramedian sulcus though grossly it may appear the vermis to be in continuity with the hemisphere there may be discontinuation of the cortex and the white fibres may be exposed at these regions, more so in the posterior lobe where the paramedian sulcus is prominent and deep(27).The posterior lobe is bounded by the primary fissure anteriorly and posterolateral fissure posteriorly, vermis of the posterior lobe has 5 lobules namely declive, folium tuber, pyramid and
3.Cauda equina - It makes of spinal nerves and spinal nerve root that located near the first lumbar vertebra of spinal cord. 4.Filum terminale - is a fibrous tissue structure that proceeded downward from the apex of the conus medullaris. It has two sections: filum terminale internum and filum terminale externum.
The principal arteries of supply to the head and neck are the “two common carotids; they ascend in the neck and each divides into two branches. One is the external carotid, supplying the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck and two the internal carotid, supplying to a great extent the parts within the cranial and orbital cavities” (Common). Coronary Arteries are the network of arteries that encircles the heart to provide its blood supply. The two primary coronary arteries, the right coronary artery and the left coronary artery, branch from the aorta as it arises from the left ventricle. The left coronary artery is significantly larger and supplies the left heart.
The rearfoot consists of four bones the distal side of the tibia and fibula (leg bones), the calcaneus (heel bone), and the talus. The plantar fascia originates from the medial calcaneal ligaments, dividing into a medial, central and lateral band that attaches to the superior surface of the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, and abductor digiti minimi musculature, respectively. The medial longitudinal arch (MLA) of the foot aids in distributing the force attributed to the weight bearing. The MLA of the foot resembles two rods a rear rod consisting of the calcaneus, talus and an anterior rod consisting of the navicular, three cuneiforms, and the first three metatarsals. These rods are connected at their base by the plantar fascia.
The reflex causes the ipsilateral pupil to dilate (Campbell & DeJong, 2005). The ciliospinal reflex is a test of ocular sympathetic function (Turner, 2012). The ciliospinal reflex depends primarily on the integrity of the sensory nerve fibers from the area of the skin being stimulated, the upper thoracic sympathetic motor neurons, and the ascending cervical sympathetic chain (Rand Swenson, 2008). The sympathetic fibers that supply the dilator pupillae muscles are believed to originate in the posterolateral hypothalamus. The sympathetic fibers project and synapse in the sympathetic cell column from vertebrae C8 to T2.
To evaluate the length of osteotomy, osteotomy lines of the anterior and posterior cortex were analyzed in the 3D surface models. For slope measurement, the intramedullary axis of the proximal tibia (slope P), posterior cortical line of the proximal tibia (slope C), and anterior cortical line of the proximal fibula (slope F) were used. Analysis of the changes in the posterior tibial slope was performed independently using a pre- and post-operative lateral plane
(25) Histologically: fibroadenoma is composing of epithelial and stromal components; the epithelial part is made up of tubules consisting of cuboidal to low columnar cells, resting on a myoepithelial cell layer. And cellular fibroblastic stromas which contain loose connective tissue, the stromal cells are small, spaced; they show no cytologic atypia and little or no mitotic activity. (41) Complex fibroadenoma is called when there is morphologic variation as hyalinization, mixoid change, calcification, apocrine metaplasia and sclerosing adenosis. Malignant transformation in fibroadenoma rarely occurs, usually involving the epithelial component in the form of carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma (lobular and