Spirituality In Organizational Management

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Literature Review
The entry and diffusion of workplace spirituality into organizational management literature began in the late 1980s and primarily situated in the United States (Hicks, 2003). The concept continues to be developed, albeit in the absence of a single unified definition (Gotsis & Kortezi, 2008; Karakas, 2010; Kinjerski & Skrypnek, 2004). Among the eclectic definitions combed and analysed, scholars found commonalities. Recurrent concepts are meaning, purpose and connectedness with others (Duchon and Plowman, 2005). Another commonality is the concept of relationship with the divine force, bearing experiences such as realization of existence and actualization of the divine at the workplace (Kamil et al., 2011; Tischler, Biberman,
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In a survey conducted by Abdullah and Low (2001), Malaysian employees opines that religious teachings should not be separated from work, and that it must guide one’s work ethics. Therefore, this paper briefly reviews the diverse interpretations of religious-based workplace spirituality from four major religions practiced in Malaysia.
Islam is the dominant religion in Malaysia. It is guided by the holy scripture Qur’an that defines Islam as the submission to the will of Allah (universal term for God) (Cullen & Parboteeah, 2008) through the expression of Ibadah (devotion to worship) such as prayers, fasting, Mecca pilgrimage and charity. Adherence to these spiritual activities are practiced “at all places and at all times” (Kamil, et al., 2011). Islam provides principles in developing self, the community and organization. According to Sulaiman and Bhatti (2013), Islamic spirituality is defined as one’s demonstrated “responsibility between one’s self and Allah”. The Muslims’ sense of spiritual self at work is shaped by their efforts in honest work done (Ali & Al-Owaihan, 2008), where work being an obligation towards self-development, self-respect, satisfaction and economic independence (Yousef, 2000). These practices and observations endear towards good relationships with people (Al-Gazzali, 2004) and bring Muslims closer to Allah (Nasr,

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