Shirahata (2006) cited Selinker (1972) as naming that linguistic system that L2 learners use and is different from their L1 and a target language as “Interlanguage”. He claimed that L2 learners have different linguistic systems of Interlanguage respectively and furthermore it has dynamic features and even the same L2 learners get to have different systems depending on their developmental stage and learning process. Interestingly, it was found from an analysis of interlanguage that some consistent errors exist in a linguistic system of language use of L2 learners and that L2 learners acquire L2 through a similar process even if their L1 is different, although it is possible to be somewhat different. As we mentioned in section 2.3, it was reported that L2 acquisition has a predictable acquisition order in morphology and syntax in common with L1 acquisition. In this way, from 1970s to 1980s, it had been gradually clear that L2 learners have possibility to acquire L2, using systematically some language systems on the basis of input of L2 that they
The Acquisition-Learning distinction is crucial because it gives an argument opposing the effortful labor of learning a new language in adults. Krashen (1988) explained that there are two independent ways in which a second language performance can be regarded. The first is the acquired system and is the product of a mind process, a subconscious one that is very similar to the one that happens with children when acquiring their native/mother tongue. This process requires continuous interaction with the target language. On the other hand, Krashen (1988) also explained that the learned system is the result of a very formal way of learning a language that involves the conscious process of being knowledgeable about a language.
In support of his findings, Skinner eventually realized that human beings could not only respond also manage their environment to induce results. However, Skinner and Watson both repudiated that thinking or emotion plays a significant role in determining behavior. Instead, humans appear to learn many behaviors -including languages- through repetitions and positive or negative reinforcement. Scientifically speaking, behaviorism explains how learning takes place. When it is taken into account in the field of language teaching, it shows how languages are learned.
The chunking theory has a place in second language acquisition, albeit limited in certain instances that will not assure desirable learning outcomes when applied exclusively. Chunking plays a crucial role in mastering grammar for the second language. The essence of chunks offers an explanation on how human beings are able to cope with cognitive limitations associated with memory, learning rates and attention to meet the demands of the environment. This follows that it is challenging for the second language learner to master complex inflectional pattern sets. These challenges occur because second language learners tend to fail picking up large adequate phrasal chunks.
From a language maintenance perspective, this characteristic diglossic conflict, where Walloon speakers generate an alternative mythology to counter the mainstream discourse, represents a challenge. A sensible strategy would be to use the existing stereotypes, both positive and negative, and to have recourse to storytelling techniques to modify the Walloon language narrative by deconstructing demeaning associations and enriching the positive connotations. Furthermore,
His method of gaining knowledge was simply to start from the bottom and work his way up. Descartes, also, emphasized the fact that human beings often make mistakes in their beliefs. Additionally, Descartes mainly used deduction to get to his answers, which could increase validity. The way Descartes created questions, building up his knowledge from scratch and doubting everything that was previously said and done, can arguably be considered as neutral. However, as a counterargument, his intent could be considered to not be neutral, as he clearly makes a statement on how knowledge should be perceived; based on sense perception and reasoning as ways of knowing only, and his way of leading a discussion, with language as a way of
As per (Sapir-Whorf 1956) assumption, the specific dialect we use to communicate decides the path in which we can consider about the world. At that point instructing our own particular dialect to our descendants has the impact to some extent, of setting their considerations in a scholarly point where they can imagine the world in their own particular form (Piattelli-Palmarini, 1980). As per Geller (1982, p. 72), Maslow theory infers that the burden of cultural standards is unessential and damaging of our remarkable potential as humans. Maslow inability to recognize the need to learn cultural standards may have originated different sources.
It can be proved in the literature; knowledge is either taken as different from beliefs by nature, or used as a grouping term without distinguishing between what we know and what we believe. According to Verloop (2001), the differences between knowledge and beliefs proves to be “blurry” and “inextricably intertwined”, which makes it impossible to differentiate whether teachers refer to their knowledge or beliefs when they plan and make decisions or perform in the classroom. In addition, Woods (1996) also proposed a network of foreign language teachers’ beliefs, assumptions and knowledge, which can be beneficial to give definitions for the key construct under investigation. Therefore, it is recommended that knowledge and beliefs should not be treated separately. Therefore, in this study, the researcher takes the term teachers’ belief inclusively to embrace the complexity of teachers’ mental lives underlying their
DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE GRAMMAR TEACHING; According to Arnis Silvia (2013), grammar teaching is regarded to through two main dimensions; presentation and practice. Relatively, Ellis (2006) claims that grammar teaching contains some instructional techniques that pull and attract the learners to acquire some grammatical forms in a helpful manner that makes them understandable. Furthermore, Ellis (2006) has suggested some linguistic rules in teaching grammar. For the first time, some grammar instructions should be presented without any practice, however, other ones should be practiced without any presentation.
She argues that the divide in research between the language production and temporary verbal memory stems from serial recall tasks because recalling random words from a list is seen by researchers as separate from the long term knowledge needed to order words in a sentence, which she views as an immediate verbal memory task. To support her theory that there is a connection, she discusses several effects that occur in immediate serial recall tasks that also occur in speaking, such as the similarity effect, primacy effect, and list-length effect. This idea of behavioral similarity is also argued in another article. Acheson and MacDonald (2009) argue against verbal working memory being an isolated system and that the maintenance aspect of the phonological loop can be attributed to the serial ordering process of phonological encoding, which they define as “the process by which a word is specified as a sequence of phonemes for the purposes of articulation” (p.