The periosteum consists of an outer fibroblast layer and an inner osteogenetic layer (cambium layer). There are blood and lymph vessels and nerves in the periosteum and it plays a critical role in bone healing. In children, periosteum has greater osteogenic potential than in adults (), which allows children’s fractures to be treated more conservatively than adults’ fractures (). In children, the periosteum separates from the bone more easily than in adults (). The periosteum initiates fracture healing, producing new bone rapidly.
Osteoarthritis causes the cartilage to lose flexibility and elasticity as it becomes stiff and rigid. Eventually, the cartilage also wears down and deteriorates, thus causing pain and discomfort in the joints. What Causes Osteoarthritis? Osteoarthritis is prevalent among adults over 60 years old. According to the United Nations, the senior
The fibula is not involved directly in forming the articular surface of the knee joint.23 Figure 1: Knee joint. The joint between the femur and the tibia is a complex type of synovial joint. The joint between the patella and the femur is a gliding type of synovial joint. The articular surfaces of the femur, tibia, and patella are covered by hyaline type cartilage.23 CAPSULE The capsule surrounds the sides and posterior aspect of the joint. It is attached to the margins of the articular surfaces.
The iliopectineal line is a fundamental structure of the anterior column providing support to the anterio-superior aspect of the acetabulum and is the main guide for evaluating the continuity of the anterior column. Fractures of this line usually indicate fractures of the anterior column. Both columns are connected to the auricular surface of the Sacro-iliac (SI) joint by the sciatic
INTRODUCTION Bone is a living, complex, hard tissue that constitutes the vertebral skeleton. It is a composite comprising of well-defined structures at different scales of hierarchy. It has an organic matrix phase composed primarily of collagen, with the inorganic phase embedded in it. The calcium and phosphate containing inorganic crystals ultimately form hydroxyapatite. The bone morphology can be describes as comprising of the cortical bone - the outer compact region, and the trabecular bone - the inner spongy region.
Spongy bone is much lighter than compact bone. Both compact and spongy tissue contains the same type of cells which are osteocytes, osteoblast, osteogenic and osteoclast. Both types of bone are alive and in a continuous state of being broken down and regenerated by the body. These 4 types of cells will help the bone remodeling. Remodeling is the process where is the old bone is removed and the new bone will
Matches the graded modulus of the spongy bones which forms the articulating surface. Actually bones are composite materials which are composed of matrix of collagen fibers, impregnated by in organic salts. Finite element model is widely used method in biomechanics because the structure of biological tissues in biomechanics. Different type of loding situations applied on the bones are still difficult to model(or) design which are also not easy for perception of specific problem and indulge to get the unique solution. To calculate the stresses and stress distributions in the femur bone some assumption are required to get joint reactions and also deformation values.
Bone is a rigid organ which resembles reinforced concrete. Its principle function is to resist mechanical forces and fractures. Collagen matrix and hydroxyapatite are critical in providing strength and elasticity along with other minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. Clinical disorders associated with bone fragility and bone collagen abnormalities lead to osteogenesis imperfecta. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized primarily by liability to fractures throughout life.
The spinal column is made of up 26 bones (vertebrae) that are cushioned by disks and stacked on top of one another. The disks protect the bones by absorbing the shocks from daily activities. In between each vertebra there are protective circular pads of cartilage (connective tissue) called discs, which have a tough, fibrous case that contains a softer gel-like substance. The discs help maintain your back's flexibility and wide range of movement. The spinal cord is highly sensitive and passes through the middle of the vertebral column.