To a large extent it is better to live spontaneously. Mencius and Daoism have different interpretations on spontaneity. Mencius emphasizes on expanding humans’ innate good nature, which leads to spontaneous moral cultivation. On the other hand, Daoism spontaneity is emptying ourselves and follow the nature of the outside world without human interference. In this essay, I will first describe the concept of spontaneity in both Mencian and Daoist views, and then I will argue that it is better to live spontaneously, in terms of psychological wellbeing and quality of decisions in life.
A ‘law of nature’ is a general rule that is discovered through reason. This law supports the claim for human self-preservation and condemns destruction of humanity. It does not need to be written down because it is natural and made known to all by mental faculty, reason or philosophy. In Leviathan, Hobbes presents, what he thinks, are the three most important laws of nature. He sees them as important because he believes that, these laws will create a state of peace, in a state where humans are constantly at war against each other.
E.g. the happiness of your life depends on the quality of your thought; therefore, make sure that you do not entertain unsuitable notions to virtue and reasonable nature. Then the idea of “in accordance with nature” was from a biological outlook. Sentient life of human strives towards self-preservation that leads a being to look for which is in tune with its nature. Whilst many thinkers might suppose health and wealth are in tune with human, the central of Marcus’s stoic concern on only infallible good is the virtue: wisdom, justice, courage, and
Utilitarianism promotes happiness, happiness exclude pain, suffering, struggles, stress, and anything that makes one ‘unhappy’ or ‘sad’. In other words, utilitarianism is ideal justification for living. Therefore, we should all strive for excellence and happiness, not just for ourselves, but also for others. The Prime Directive – Star Trek I think that we
There is great pleasure, too, in feeling something agreeable to the touch, and material things have various qualities to please each of the other senses. Our ambition to obtain all these things must not lead us astray” (p.48). This is showing Augustine’s understanding that life’s pleasures are wonderful, but surrendering to them leads to immoral actions and unrighteousness. However, Augustine does not recommend indulging in worldly pleasures in moderation and keeping a balance. Instead, he argues that eliminating earthly possessions and secular pleasures all together will bring those closer to
Kant’s categorical imperative as known as The Formula Of The End In Itself states that people should act in a certain way that you always treat humanity and always consider them as an end but never as mere means. This moral theory opposes to Utilitarianism, which supports the “greatest happiness principle”. According to “greatest happiness principle” people ought to act in such a way that produce the greatest amount of happiness for the
He explains: By adhering to appearances as appearances, says Sextus, the skeptic can live in undogmatic accord with the usual rules of life, without dogma, and accept the guidance of nature of emotions, hunger, and thirst as well the guidance of customs, laws, the arts, and ordinary morality… To believe that something is by nature good is to be unreasonably, and immoderately elated by having it and disturbed by the thought of losing it. But to abstain from thinking that things are naturally good or bad or abstain from pursuing or avoiding anything eagerly is to remain untroubled (Scharfstein,
Mencius believes human nature is inherently good through the teachings of Confucius. He argues with other confusions whom interpret his teachings differently, some believe humanity is born evil, others believe humanity is born neither good or evil, just a blank slate that can be influenced into becoming; good or evil. Mencius said “Humanity, Duty, Ritual, Wisdom-these are not external things we meld into us. They’re part of us from the beginning, though we may not realize it.” (Mencius 80) Humanity, Duty, Ritual may be part of us from the beginning, but like anything in life, it must be embraced and nourished or it will die just like any neglected thing. Mencius claims “Human nature is inherently good” (Mencius 79) but, without nurturing and
And even if we do not understand or found our potential, just be a wise person and that will bring you to be a good person (Professor Magagna, 2015). For the second quote, it tells us that it is good if we know about the human nature because you will gain knowledge from it. But it does not be as good as just know it than fully knowing it. Also, the word “delight” in the second quote, means to be happy, and to live life full and happy as a human being on earth (Professor Magagna, 2015). Professor Magagna also brings out an idea from Mencius, that human nature is already bad.
In my opinion, greater happiness helps society more, than great suffering, because I think it is just human nature to favor greater happiness instead of great suffering. As a result, I think it is morally permissible to torture if it results in greater happiness. This view is called utilitarianism where the main principle is to maximize utility, which is happiness or the prevention of pain. Utilitarianism is a moral theory that was founded by moral philosopher Jeremy Bentham. According to him, happiness and pain govern human actions, and so morality’s main principle is to “maximize happiness” and minimize pain (Sandel, pg.
By ruling with good morals you are showing the society positive ways. They are able to notice that their ruler is respecting them and being trustworthy; therefore the society will be in harmony and follow in the footsteps of their ruler. It was said that if you promote good relationships than you are able to manage them, not loose the good will of the people, and you become “worthy of being looked up to as the head of the clan” (“Confucius Analects” 3). Confucius also strongly agreed that the role of a ruler was to guide the society rather than trying to control them. He believed that if we didn’t guide them and only punished them they will not get in trouble but they will never have shame for what they have done.
Determinists say “every action is determined by prior events”, and metaphysical libertarian argue that “people are free and morally responsible”; compatibilists join in the debate and interpose, “Free will is not at odds with determinism” (lecture 13). No matter what, I hope people have free will. I still think what I think and act as I think. I still doubt things outside my mind but not my ability to think freely and act freely. As D.H. Law Lawrence puts it, “Men are freest when they are most unconscious of freedom” (p256 text).
The human task is not to create a perfect world. Only idealistic crusaders believe that we can perfect the world. Rather, human beings can only mitigate and ameliorate. We should admit our finitude, ask for aid and forgiveness, and endeavor to uphold those principles of justice that we find in the just war
Like the hedge in Norton, Herrera’s land art remained a natural condition—despite its relocation. In Norton, the property owners planted a hedge. Relocating a hedge does not change the fact that it still remains a hedge. Thus, the court held the hedge was natural. Similarly, Herrera’s land art remained natural, even when Herrera relocated rocks from a nearby quarry and stacked them on top of one another.
Additionally, I do not want to place any unfair pressure on you to live up to a certain expectation. My expectation of you is to live a moral life full of virtue rather than someone deciding for you who you are supposed to be. It is a challenge I pass onto you to live each day understanding that the world is as you see it, not how anyone else tells you to (Lewis, 1944). You are capable of being a great leader by living a virtuous, wholesome life as you see it from your perspective. It may be challenging to wrap your head around the things discussed throughout this letter, but I share it because I know you are capable to harnessing the vision that Aristotle has shared, an idea removed at the time of the Enlightenment.