Also, the urban industrial sector requires the transfer of labor in order to build its profitability, productivity and efficiency. In the urban areas of a country, the migrants are supposedly attracted to it because of the possibility of earning a better income. As per Todaro, unusual levels of rural-urban migration can continue to rise even at the point when urban unemployment rates are high and are known people considering migrating there. Migrants will move regardless of the possibility that that migrant ends up being unemployed or gets a lesser level of urban income than the income he was receiving in rural areas (Todaro, 1976:31). Likewise, the likelihood of getting an urban employment is inversely linked with the urban unemployment rate (Todaro, 1976:
The main issue which is creating problem to fight against poverty is that people migrating from rural areas to urban areas is making the urban cities quite congested and affecting the lifestyle of the urban people. Findings show that 75 percent of the developing world's poor still live in rural areas it’s a large amount of percentage people living in rural areas because of their agriculture work as it’s a main source of income for the rural areas. It is believed that the main cause of rise in urban poor is the cost of living as the author has stated that overall people living in rural areas have $1cost of living per day but if we compare this with living cost in urban it’s like nothing so this increase poverty in the urban area. The urban poor face the housing problems as governments and local government try to make housing societies for the low income group but it fails to get them a fixed asset as one big problem of corruption arises in the developing countries and that land is basically allotted to landlords or some projects, thus doing hand with the low income groups and make difficulties for the poor ones. With a new rising trend towards less planning for social housing in big cities, administrators and city developers know very well
It was the many work and educational opportunities in the United States that prompted Latin Americans to move there. Another factor that caused large migrations during the 1960s and 1970s was the fact that the Central American governments “targeted groups seeking to organize around issues and problems” (Hamilton and Chinchilla, 91). There was too much violence, killings and mass murders. There was also a significant growth of migration in the United States knowing that many Latin Americans seeked for a better livelihood than in their country of origin. This situation caused a rising concern for the American government because they were not aware of the growing number of illegal immigrants.
Urbanization may be driven by local or global economic and social changes, and most of the time is the product of industrialization. As urban areas grow the population shifts from rural to urban areas, which is an example of how society adapts to change. The industrial revolution is the best example of this transformation to urban life, people wanted to upgrade their standard of living. This had both good and bad outcomes, the good was that it increased jobs and a bad outcome was that the life for the low class wasn’t that great. Most people were working for long hours for very little money to survive.
Rural-urban migration has been continuing for a pretty long time but it has not always been as great a problem as it is today. The general poverty among the rural people pushes them out to urban areas to migrate in search of livelihood and in the hope of a better
This was evident in South Africa, where the government would identify cheap land which was far-off from the urban settlements, thus ensuring racial segregation. Moreover, this resulted in a tenacious increase in informal settlements in urban peripheries, as low income individuals seek for employment opportunities and access to convenient services (Ntema, 2011). The idea of providing sites and services schemes was also criticised, as it was argued by Ntema (2011) that it mainly targeted the working class, being the middle income earners, who had the means to build their own houses. Low income earners who were unemployed being the majority of the South African population, could not afford to do such. Again, the consequences were the increasing rates of informal settlements as a response to having shelter.
It can be perfectly rational to migrate despite urban unemployment due to a positive expected income differential. Hagen-Zanker (2008) argued against this assumption as not having clear predictions and the significance of income differentials is undisputable in labour migration decision. Increased rural emigration certainly makes the rural areas depopulated and this affects the rural economy in general and agriculture in particular, which is the main economic activity in those areas. Migration from the rural areas causes changes in resources (labour and land resources) in the rural
In the history of mankind, human beings, regardless of nationalities, races, religious practices, and purposes, have directed movement across a specific boundary for a variety complex of reasons. As the matter of fact, in the hunting and gathering societies, people migrated for the purpose of finding food and hunting animals, while in this age of industrialization, globalization, and urbanization, people move from economically developing countries to economically developed ones in search of greener pastures. Moreover, when the border of the developed countries are opened up allowing free movement of people every single day, the number of migrants increases remarkably. As a consequence, migration from the developing countries to developed countries has become a social and political issues in the 21st century due to four main reasons. First of all, the movement of migrants can result in conflict, xenophobia, and racism from local folks towards the migrants.
In the year 2050, Africa and Asia will be by far one of the most populated regions in respect to urban growth, the estimated growth is said to be 70%. There are two main reasons to Rural-Urban migrations. Firstly urban areas often seem to attract the migrants through better employment opportunities for men and women as well as higher wages as compared to rural areas. Secondly the most important reason that forces them to leave their rural settlements and move towards urban cities is the disastrous issues like floods and droughts or any form of conflict/social discrimination. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations defines food security as a basic human right where everyone at all times is able to have access to safe and sufficient nutritious food items.
It is observed that migration as a percentage of total population has been declining up to 1991 census, where as the rural to urban migration is showing an increasing trend over the period 1971 to 2001(Lusome & Bhagat, 2006). Over 22% of migrants has been increased from 1991-2201 since 1951 as revealed in Fig 1.The expansion in the migration rate in the course of 1990s is frequently seen as a result of the powers unleashed by the new monetary arrangement, which depended on the principles of liberalization,, globalization and privatization. Population mobility is a course of action that gets intensified with the process of economic development. Among the various migration streams rural to urban areas is a common and ever-increasing phenomenon in India. Interestingly, this rural-urban migration is observed to have significant implications to the economic development from the previous empirical studies.