To put it simply, a proprium is the name of an attribute, the modality of an essence; it expresses nothing and does not constitute the nature of Substance. Descartes states that the nature of God consists in infinite perfection, this propium embraces God as summum bonum, as compassionate, just and charitable. For Spinoza, this is like the speculative Scriptural teaching of Aquinas, for which God’s characteristics are borrowed from creatures in order to attribute them to God to portray his eminence. This subtle anthropomorphism is just as dangerous as the naïveté of superstition. Influenced by Scotus’ formal distinctions of God in which different quiddities belong to the same subject, Spinoza transforms the propria from Descartes and Scotus to the concept of attributes.
He magnifies the great Indian spirit for its analytical frame of mind, its treatise towards spiritual poles of life. The essence of the spiritual sphere is not to renounce the terrestrial life but makes it perfect with the divine protection. Sri Aurobindo has experienced spirituality does not mean the mere corporeal existence, as a mortal vanity or accepting voluntary poverty. In a broad sense spirituality means human effort in making gigantic grasp of moral and divine values. Indeed it is a formidable task, but absolutely indispensable.
These religious references build upon each other to develop Burgess’ notion that God created humans with free will, and how this leaves humankind flawed and prone to evil tendences. Though, despite this, humanity’s free will is the most important thing to both God and humanity itself. Burgess sees humans as beings
Human is born with the natural ability of reasoning whether or not it is a gracious gift from God as claimed. According to natural law, human is capable of deciding whether an action is morally right or wrong. We do not create what is evil and good, rather, we discover what is right or wrong. Besides, humans are morally obliged to use their reasoning capability to discern what the laws are and subsequently acting in conformity with them. Therefore, there is no reason why divine law must be superior than man-made law when human is just as effective and arguably, even more effective.
Arguments Mencius’ Argument Mencius’ argument on human nature asserts that human nature is inherently good and that all human beings have the capacity to be good. The following quotes are translations of Mencius’ argument: (Quote 1) “The nature is what is given by Heaven: one cannot learn it; one cannot acquire it by effort. Ritual and rightness are created by sages: people learn them and are capable, through effort, of bringing them to completion. What cannot be learned or acquired by effort but is within us is called the nature. What can be learned and, through effort, brought to completion is called conscious
In this section I would like to compare two different approaches of the before mentioned concepts of ethics and desire. The first theme that I started my paper with is ethics. Both Levinas and Aristotle in their philosophies strove for the higher good, which for one of them was represented by happiness and for another by the notion of G-d. In their perception this higher good is the eternal truth and understanding of the world. For Levinas, however, the ‘good’ is infinite in a sense that it is not concerned in what is common among all things, but what is entirely unique about each person or thing.
They accept natural cause as a viable explanation for how the universe came to its present state. They want to be accepted as men of science, yet desire to be viewed as Christians. They believe in some type of god. Despite claims to the contrary, their belief conflicts with the Bible and its teaching about God as creator. The term “theistic evolution” is an
It constitutes the understanding that humanity’s ultimate realisation of itself and of the world can be attained only by an ever-increasing liberation of the values that are universal and human. Swami Vivekananda’s humanism was spiritual humanism. Humanism basically concerns itself with the issue of man society. It makes a search for individual identity, equality and rationality. Swami Vivekananda’s unique contribution was his development of the idea of scientific spiritualism.
According to Concise Oxford Dictionary, “ A mystic is one who believes in spiritual apprehension of truth beyond understanding.” Mysticism is , in truth, a temper, a mood rather than a doctrine or philosophy of life. A mystic comprehends a world of divine reality behind the ordinary world of sense perception. He believes that the world which lies open before his eyes, speaks to him before his senses, to his soul. He trusts that the external world must be animated by a spirit or life of its own; the source of which may be the same as that of soul of Man. In other words, the whole universe and all its objects are animated by the 'Supreme Soul' or 'Cosmic Spirit' which is termed as 'God' by religion.
These views may rest upon the belief that God has created a perfect order but human tries to manipulate that creation by altering DNA, the basic element of all life (Straughan, 1996). Different religions would make different perspective regarding nature of God’s creation. Some religion assume a particular "essence" to each living things and they interconnect the concept of gene with "essence". Others said that biotechnology oppose the limitation of what humans are ethically allowed to do. On the other hand, there is a concept that science are great things which are God-given gift to improve human life and sustain the