Berkeley was an idealist and claimed that abstract ideas are the source of all philosophical perplexity and illusion. In his Introduction to the Principles of Human Knowledge he argued that, as Locke described abstract ideas they cannot, in fact, be formed, they are not needed for communication or knowledge, and they are inconsistent and therefore inconceivable. In the Principles Berkeley defends two metaphysical theses: idealism (the claim that everything that exists either is a mind or depends on a mind for its existence) and immaterialism (the claim that matter does not exist). His contention that all physical objects are composed of ideas is encapsulated in his motto esse is percipi (to be is to be perceived). On the first hand, the
The first subject of discourse is the basis of doubt in the lives of Descartes and Augustine. Descartes has a process very unlike that of Augustine, which causes one to think about the authenticity of their conclusion, even if it is the same. Descartes ' process is purely artificial apart from his everyday life (I should say that purely is a bit too much since all philosophy has a partial component linked to the whole human person). Augustine 's approach to doubt is completely organic, there is no logical process taking place for him. Descartes definitely has a method to his skeptical reasoning.
CHAPTER-3 Krishnamurthy’s Perspective of Meditation Choiceless Observation: Choiceless observation or awareness is the crux of Krishnamurti 's philosophy of life. To him, choiceless observation is the only 'way ', the direct and 'intelligent ' way of understanding the truth of 'what is '. It alone can transform the fact, the actuality by revealing its true nature. It is only 'through ' it that consciousness can be emptied of its content. Krishnamurti maintains that excepting choiceless awareness, there is no other way of regenerating the human mind and the world irreversibly and instantaneously.
In The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, Immanuel Kant endeavors to refute Hume’s claim that all ideas have their origins in experience through his own transcendental idealism (Prolegomena, introduction, CoP pg. 819) . To do this, Kant progresses the view that it is possible to have a priori truths. To support this refutation, Kant develops a conceptual scheme that works to explain how a priori truths are synthesized in the mind, and gives an account of Kant’s “two-world view”. This view explores the relation and existence of the phenomenal world and the world of things-in-themselves.
The difference portrayed between concepts achieved through reflection and concepts obtained by inference seems to be misleading whereas the groupings of understanding state experience and so facilitates the unity of consciousness which is necessary to all reflection. The purpose of the Ideas is to systematise experience in its entirety and the function of the classes is to provide possible the sense-perceptions essential aspect of its content. The former is unconditioned and it characterises a type of knowledge to which is not adequate to any actual experience. So the transcendental ideas are the concepts of pure reason which correspond to concepts of understanding categories. In a general sense, Kant uses the word 'Idea ' in Platonic usage.
Kant himself provided multiple definitions for the Categorical Imperative. Kant believed that each definition that he provided encapsulated the same underlying ideology, while portraying the concepts in slightly different ways. The first and most commonly used definition of the Categorical Imperative, as stated by Kant in “Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals” is: “Act as though the maxim of your action were to become, through your will, a
He wanted “to set in motion machinery which will bring noblest ideas to the doorstep of even the poorest and the meanest.” Vivekananda believed that the essence of Hinduism was best expressed in the Vedanta philosophy, based on the interpretation of Adi Shankara. He said that no one teaches others, they learn by themselves through their experience and efforts in life. Teacher only gives advises. Through this the teacher within motivates himself to learn and to understand things. He criticized the educational system and said that, “You regard that man to be educated who obtains some degree, has passed out some examinations, and is able to deliver fluent lecturers.
Immanuel Kant's Philosophy, Critique of Pure Reason, demonstrates the connection between the human mind and its various faculties that contribute to the production of experience. Kant's reasoning to the production of experience truly outweighs the reasoning of production explained by David Hume in Treatise. Kant is far more detailed to the point where you would truly get a grasp of what he is say To begin with, in Immanuel Kant’s Transcendental Doctrine of Elements he discusses two concepts, space and time in relation to the mind. For example, he claims, “The effect of an object upon the faculty a representation, so far as we are affected by it, is sensation”(A 20). He is expressing that in order to experience things within the world we must first have the concept of space and time.
Epistemological Theories Epistemology begin when philosophers shifted from asking what is reality to asking the question of how we can be sure of reality. According to Lawhead, each epistemological theory theories goal is to answer three questions: Is knowledge possible, does reason provide us with reason of the world independently of experience, and deos our knowledge represent reality as it really is? (pg 208). Empiricism is what made up many of the first epistemological arguments. Empiricism is the claim that sense experience is the sole source of our knowledge.
• EPISTEMOLOGY Positivist support the idea of John Locke which states that human mind is blank at birth. Positivism research tradition takes different amongst subject along with object. The epistemology of positivism is based on parallel dualism, which can be defined as philosophy of mind. The dualism includes mental and bodily or mind as well as body. Positivism presume the existent of a direct and mainly theory-neutral by conducting observation or experimentation the social world is accessed.