A factor they have in common is how they seem to become modelled cognitions that are passed on from perpetrator to victim. In applying the social leaning theory (discussed in chapter two), it has been observed that the original age of victimization of pedophilles and hebephiles correlates with their distinct victims of choice (Greenberg, Bradford and Curry, 1993: 433). In a study conducted by Greenberg, Bradford and Curry (1993: 433-434) they found that 42% of pedophiles and 44% of hebephiles reported a history of sexual abuse by an adult in their childhood. A significant difference was found in reported sexual abuse by pedophiles and hebephiles and the time of the violations. Hebephiles reported being victimized in early adolescence where pedophiles reported being victimized during prepubertal stages.
The transition between elementary school to middle school can affect the way that adolescents mature mentally and cause them to think more about their identity and where they fit in the world. The development of an individual’s personal identity usually begins at this point of early adolescence. Many factors can influence the development of personal identity among minority adolescence, including ethnicity and raciality. Ethnic identity development greatly influences adolescents’ achievement, self- concept, and behavior towards any situation. An adolescent will usually begin to show their ethnic and racial attitudes by about ten years of age.
Thus, crisis unresolved during this stage will lead children to become compulsively moralistic or overly inhibited (Apruebo, 2008). This theory aided the research in such a way that it explains how a child, especially during their play age develop a psychopathology which causes in the delay of the development of a child. Psychoanalytic Approach Dr. Sigmund Freud asserts that the first few years of life are decisive for the formation of personality. He developed five stages namely: the oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency stage and genital stage. In these stages especially during the phallic stage, Freud believed that identification will occur (Apruebo, 2008).
Children should also be given the right to choose their career path and live their dreams but the real world experience of parents definitely can 't be put on a back seat. So, who should be the one choosing a career for a child - the child himself, parents or both together? Parents’ high standards sometimes influence children to pursue activities they think will win the approval of their parents. For example, some parents punish their teenagers for not earning straight As, or criticize them for pursuing art instead of a practical profession such as law or medicine. In these cases, a teenager might feel obligated to select a
Roth, by this novel, confesses that even one choice can transform you to change the world by determining identity. “Tomorrow at the Choosing Ceremony, I will decide on a faction; I will decide the rest of my life; I will decide to stay with my family or abandon them.” Tris. Each of us have to choose who we are, what our competence are, what our identity is. Some people think that if people can focuses on one thing, they will be an expert. People will focus on their competence or interest in order to be an expert, such as doctor specialist or all professionals for their work.
Guilt, happens within 3-5 years, and includes the ability to be a self-starter, to initiate one’s own activities and to face the crisis of having a sense of guilt, inadequacy and learn to be on one’s own. The fifth stage, Identity vs. Inferiority, which happens during puberty, is the ability to learn how things work, to understand and organize. The crisis involves a sense of inferiority at understanding and organizing. Stage six Intimacy vs. Isolation, which happens during the young adult stage.
Before I will explain further about the movie I will describe youth, youth is a sociological construct that operates at multiple levels an individual young person, an attitude for being in the social world, and an institution. According to Granville Stanley Hall (1844 – 1924), believed that pre-adolescent as savages seeing individual development in a linear fashion. At the youth age almost of them had the same characteristic such as conflict with parents with rebellious the authority, emotionally volatile, and they always make risky behavior. Next, from the movie Divergent, I will analyze about three topics such as social class and lifestyle, personality and power. Based on this movie they were divided into five group or faction to keep the peace, in this movie and this faction will determine what tasks or job need to be done by them.
For example, an individual’s New Years Resolution could be to become head of a company when they only started working in a company that month. People will find the goals are too difficult to attain and they become discouraged and give up. Another reason is that their New Years Resolution could have been forced upon them. For example if someone told someone to aim to join the football team as opposed to deciding for themselves they would be less motivated to reach this goal. They could also be criticized for trying to reach their goals and thus their goals are quickly abandoned.
Erikson’s first five stages followed the same sequence and core concepts as Freud’s and the element that bonds both their theories is that if someone has a difficulty in adulthood it is because they may not have resolved it in an earlier childhood conflict. For example, a child who does not resolve Erikson’s first stage of trust vs. mistrust will have problems trusting in adulthood. In Erikson’s third stage entitled initiative vs. guilt which takes place between the ages of 3-6, children internalize or accept responses from parents and peers and those internalized reactions follow them throughout their lives, and in turn, affect how they interact in society. For example, in a society where being assertive is valued an assertive child will get positive feedback and thrive. On the other hand, in a society where assertiveness is viewed negatively, the child will get negative responses from parents and peers and this will affect his development into an adult.
Often children are taught that their success and happiness in life is stated by how much possession they will have. This kind of upbringing leads child to the materialistic character. After that children in school and then in universities evaluate each other from the materialistic point of view. Psychologists in Poland University make a survey and the aim of the study was to determine whether the level of adults’ materialism depends on parental attitudes toward upbringing and whether a negative assessment of the family of origin’s material situation and a low level of meeting material needs in childhood contributed to the formation of materialistic attitudes. 453 individuals had been surveyed.