It often includes the first wave of core emergency services such as firefighters, police and, ambulance crews (The four phases of emergency management, n.d.). Response is the actions taken to save lives and prevent further damage in a disaster situation. It is putting preparedness plans into action. It often includes damage assessment, search and rescue, firefighting and, sheltering the victims (The four phases of emergency management, n.d.). The public sector can enhance response by making sure local police and sheriff’s departments are aware of exit plans for cities and towns, by making sure hospitals and other emergency first responders know how to quickly implement a response team, by making sure all responders are trained and aware of the preparedness plans (The four phases of emergency management, n.d.).
Emergency preparedness can be defined as pre-impact activities that establish a state of readiness to respond to extreme events that could affect the community. It establishes organizational readiness to minimize the adverse impact of these events by means of active responses to protect the health and safety of individuals and the integrity and functioning of physical structures. The emergency preparedness is achieved by planning, training, equipping, and exercising the emergency response organization. That is, members of the DRRMO establish the basic plan, annexes, and appendixes of the jurisdiction’s EOP, train members of the emergency response organization to perform their duties, and test the plan’s effectiveness with emergency exercises.
The period following a natural disaster is characterized by complex and demanding conditions. The most crucial steps in this phase are to assess humanitarian needs and offer relief assistance to the people affected. Furthermore, it is essential to carry out an assessment of the damages and losses which have been caused by the hazard and to work out an extensive recovery plan which can itself then contribute to a sustainable development process where risk reduction is specifically addressed (GFDRR, 2008). However every disaster is also an opportunity to gain positive outcomes from a negative event and to gain experience and guidance for possible responses to disasters in the future. Recovery from disasters differs between countries.
On county and state levels the important steps would construction of the shelters or designating places that can be used as shelters, stockpiles of water and non-perishable food, fuel reserves, medication supplies flashlights, candles disaster supply kits. The importance of this stage is the preparation of procedures and equipment. The planning includes a designation of a chain of command, including establishment of Emergency Operation Center (EOC) and officials who would initiate a disaster plan (Nies & McEwen, 2015). Hospitals preparation include stockpiling pharmaceuticals, reviewing the emergency scenarios and designating
Preparedness is a shared responsibility in keeping community’s safe during times of crisis. Preparedness calls for involvement from everyone in the community, not just government agencies (FEMA, 2011). To ensure communities are prepared during times of crisis there must be effective communications between emergency management personnel and citizens of the community. It is essential that no one be left out of the community’s communication plan. Communicating effectively with the community means communicating with the whole community.
When a disaster strikes, the slow mobility of the relief supplies or their unavailability cause ineffective emergency response and as a result, the human misery and death toll increases many folds. The humanitarian organisations can improve their effectiveness in responding to the natural disasters and other emergency situations by improving their preparedness for the emergency and by ensuring sufficient availability of the relief supplies at the time of need. This can be done by pre-positioning or stock piling inventory at appropriate warehouse locations. Most importantly, when disasters occur without any provisional phase, an organised and prepared supply network becomes most beneficial in reducing the procurement time for the relief supplies. At the onset of the disaster, the local
There are not essential differences between crisis management and disasters management, only that the last is more specific. However, there is another concept derived from disaster management who covers nearly the whole discussed thematic area, namely the emergency management. Emergency Management is the generic name of an interdisciplinary field dealing with the strategic organizational management processes used to protect critical assets of an organization from hazard risks that can cause disasters or catastrophes, and to ensure their continuance within their planned lifetime. Classical models of disaster management systems There are a lot of models that respect the classical principles of the disaster management such as Traditional model, Expand and Contract model, Kimberly’s model, Tuscaloosa model, Circular model, Manitoba integrated model, etc. Hereafter a description some of the them.
Emergency Management Disaster could happen at anytime and anywhere. As mentioned in previous part of this module, disaster can be classified into two categories which are natural disaster and people-caused disaster. The examples of natural disaster include earthquake, tsunami, floods, and epidemic. On the other hand, people-caused disaster consists of terrorism, fires, sabotage and accident. Recently, natural disaster and technological-caused disaster bring about significant losses (Nirupama & Etkin, 2012).
During disaster response one big challenge is efficient collaboration and task management in fast changing environment and this may further provoked by the availability of data explosion such as large scale disaster, as incidents may get lost and/or delayed in large amount of data. Well-informed decisions and their assessment are imperative to monitor their effectiveness
Emergency management describes the process of preparing for disasters, responding to their occurrence and putting in place both structural and nonstructural measures to mitigate against them. Emergency management has come a long way in terms of evolution in the United States of America. In terms of evolution, there have been a number of changes with evidence in shift from state to federal and local involvement in disaster management. This paper will thus discuss the evolution of emergency management as well as the lessons that have come as a result of this evolution. The evolution can be traced back to the biblical times, Moses himself tried to manage floods by splitting the Red Sea (George et al, p. 1).