Therefore, it is imperative that organizations recognize that the actions of management in stakeholder relationships could affect the business operations of hotels. Stakeholder theory expanded on the concept of CSR. The theory identified the various stakeholder groups that were influenced by the way an organization conducted business. Freeman (as cited by Appiah, 2016) said that many CSR activities have various degrees of importance to stakeholders in any organization. The interests of the traditional group of external stakeholders cannot be satisfied without satisfying the needs of internal stakeholders according to Foster & Jonker; Hawkins (as cited by Appiah, 2016).
Since a stake can be defined as “something of value, some form of capital – human, physical or financial – that is (placed) at risk, either voluntarily or involuntarily” (Clarkson, 1998, p. 2), organisational stakeholders can be understood as “individuals or groups who incur and/or impose risk in their relationships with the organisation.” (Vidaver-Cohen, 2007, pp. 278-304). The stakeholder groups that can both incur and impose risk, cannot only
2.2 STAKEHOLDERS A stakeholder is any individual or group that either positively or negatively, impacts or is affected by the choices and activities of an organization. It can likewise be alluded to as any individual or group who has a personal stake in the result of an organization's activities. Stakeholders are classified in view of the degree to which the choices of the organization influence them. We have the individuals and groups who are directly influenced by the choices of the organization, and there are the individuals and groups who are not specifically affected by the choice of the organization. Cases of direct stakeholders include employees, creditors, contractors, investors, owners, customers, clients, consumers, shareholders,
Stakeholders have an interest in an organisation and they are affected by all decisions and actions taken by an organisation to attain its objectives. Stakeholders can be internal or external to the organisation. Stakeholder relationships are categorised in to the following four categories participative, collaborative, informative and defending. (Anon., 2017) Stakeholder engagement is a process of engaging with the relevant stakeholders (Morphy, 2015-2017). Stakeholder engagement is about addressing problems by providing strategies, infrastructure and processes.
Both the stakeholder model and shareholder primacy provide views into the important question as to whose interests businesses should act in. When the interests of shareholders and that of a different stakeholder group are in conflict it is imperative for the business to know where they stand surrounding the issue of which group’s interests they should support. This essay presents the reasons behind taking a position in favour of the stakeholder model and argues that acting in the interests of the group which has the most merit surrounding the conflict, as this model suggests, is most appropriate. This is done by critically evaluating the arguments for shareholder primacy that state that by prioritising shareholders’ interests will ultimately benefit everyone and the argument that claims that shareholders are the owners of the business and their interests should thus be favoured. It also presents and critiques the argument in favour of the stakeholder model that claims that contributions are made by all stakeholders and therefore businesses should act in everyone’s interest.
How Should You Prioritize Your Stakeholders Working in a global organization gives us the opportunity to interact with various sorts and varieties of stakeholders, the actions we take and the projects we run will affect more and more people. The people we affect are those who can contribute to our overall growth or fail the projects. If we can prioritize correctly, they can provide industry insight, highest commitment or even powerful outcome that can help our organization achieve the goals. To clarify, a stakeholder is any individual or group of people who will be impacted by changes resulting from the business initiative, and can influence the success of the business initiative. An organization has a variety of key groups, different group will bring different expectations due to their relationship with the organization.
Stakeholder analysis (also called stakeholder mapping) is a method of determining the levels of interest and influence an individual, group, or organization have in an information system development as defined in Bourne, (2010). Stakeholder analysis is a method that prompt project team members understand different stakeholders interests in a project and increase the chances of producing a successful product. It helps in deciding which stakeholders might have the most influence over the success or failure of project, the most influential supporters or principled opponents. De Baar (2006) elaborated it more as a technique to identify and analyze the information on stakeholders surrounding a project, their relationships, interests, and expectations
With good reputation, it helps firms to create competitive advantage in the business environment. Thus, instead of focus on short-term profit maximizing or costs saving, firms should be stakeholder-oriented. A firm which is stakeholder-oriented focuses on the need of their stakeholder such as employees, customers, society and others who have a direct economic link to the firm (Habil, n.d.). Businesses that are socially responsible will avoid actions that may cause detrimental to stakeholders. They have greater concern on stakeholder well –being.
Figure 2.3, the traditional model (Primary stakeholders) of managerial capitalism, where the firm is related to four groups, such as suppliers, employees, customers and shareholders that provide the basic resources for the corporation had to change, to encompass the emergence of environment list, consumer advocates, media, government and global competition. Traditional stakeholder model In Figure2.4, that shows, the stakeholder view of the firm, the firm has obligations not only to one group but also to a whole variety of other constituencies that are affected by its activities (secondary stakeholders). The corporation is thus situated at the centre of a series of interdependent two-way relationships (Judith, el al., 2006). Stakeholder
A long reigning business is determined by how it copes with developing societies and generations. Its success is guaranteed long term if it is constantly insuring overall satisfaction to all involved parties. This is known as the Stakeholder theory. Although it isn’t necessarily every business’s responsibility to go the extra mile, the stakeholder approach insures a smooth blend of business efficiency and ethical behavior (Andrew L. Friedman and Samantha Miles, 2006, p.63). It is a bargain for all parties involved, especially the shareholders.