The linguists felt the need of purifying English language because of the intrusion of foreign language words. They assumed their role the role of an authority to perfect the language by giving logical rules. ‘By seventeenth century Grammarian and lexicographer, Elisha Coles compiled An English Dictionary (1692) by assuming that words can be defined according to the principle that all language has common elements. For example, he explains difficult terms from divinity, husbandry, philosophy, law, and mathematics, and he records thousands of hard words excluded in other dictionaries. He defines words by looking at universal language in the following ways: etymological derivation, rules of grammar, and pronunciation.
In the 17 century grammar books at this time presented the information which related to the spelling, definitions, origin of words and usage notes. These grammar books extracted their grammar from Latin. In the 18 century the decision of language changed from grammar to lexicographers. Grammar books focused on teaching and lexicographers, from other point of view dictionaries became more developed. For example Johnson who made a use of techniques which used before by grammarians.
The earliest beginnings of English prose took place in the Anglo Saxon period during the reign of King Alfred. Much of Anglo Saxon prose consists of translations from Latin. Most of these translations were done by King Alfred which includes- Pastoral Care of Pope Gregory, History of the World of Orosis, and
These norms and rules have to be formulated and set down definitively in grammars, dictionaries, spellers, manuals of styles, texts and so. (3) There is an important document of codification which is the dictionary of Dr Johnson 1755. Before Dr Johnson’s dictionary, dictionaries contained hard word explanations, also the bilingual dictionaries were to hard to be understood and did not record the ordinary English words. Writing systems and alphabets in England In the past, English alphabetic writing system was based originally on the Roman alphabet. The Roman alphabet was brought to England by Christian missionaries and church in the 6th
The word Grammar is derived from Greek which means “ART OF LETTERS“. This art should be developed to enhance our language fluency. Grammar has undeniable work to classify the words in Language. To organize it we can use parts of speech to proclaim the exact formation and denotation of a sentence. "English Grammar is a thoroughly practical and thoroughly human tool for communication" - Thomas E. Payne Grammar was considered as one of the most important for development of a language.
In establishing the rule of law and western style of education hoped to impart its political legacy of ensuring liberty of the individual. Better education facilities had led to the improvement of the standard of living of the people. Although it can also be argued that these changes to India were effected for the British interests of efficient administration and governance, the impact of these reforms were nonetheless important towards ensuring the liberty of the individual. British educational endeavors seemed to create an ideological hegemony through its creation of educated Indian elite who had appeared to the ideas of British control by performing the local administrative functions of the nation. On the other side British reforms on educational sector is always a
We will examine the inconsistent condition of the English Language in the early American colonies, in order to come to a conclusion as to why so much time and effort were being put into changing the British way of spelling. Finally, we will take a short look at the spelling reform that was accepted and the many suggest reforms that were rejected. “American attempts to reform ‘archaic, cumbrous, and ineffective’ English spelling have generally failed and now the forms are relatively fixed. But the history of the many attempts to change them is fascinating.” (Hodges, R.E., 1964) Keywords: English, American, British, reform The Americanization of the spelling of British words People in America often wonder why our spelling of certain words is different than the British spelling of the same word with that same meaning. Noah Webster is considered to be the man most responsible for the differences, by changing the archaic British spelling to a way of spelling based on the phonetic sound of the
The need to learn foreign languages was linked to communicative purposes and commercial activities as well. Centuries ago, Latin had been the dominant language of education, commerce and religion; however, it was replaced in a comparison with nowadays by the English language. The innovation in foreign language teaching began in the 19th century and increased in the 20th century. For instance, the history of teaching the English language in foreign countries was characterized by many methods and approaches. In the early decades of the nineteenth century the restrictive nature of what later came to be called the ‘Grammar-Translation Method’ (or the ‘Classical Method’).
English language standardization is a standard form of written English which has been established in England, that standard is always evolving and as English has spread around the world, several different varieties of English now exist. It’s also stress that the stages of standardization need to be successive and may extend over , and that the process involved in the implementation of a standard English are ongoing as successive generation attempt to suppress the variability which is the inventible result of linguistic change . Samuel Johnson dictionary (1755) is named by the dictionary of Standard English which became a model and standard of English in America and England. The dictionaries before Johnson were just a list
Anglo - VII-XI centuries. BC (700 - 1100) Middle English - from the XI to XV centuries. (1100 - 1450/1500) New England - from 1500 to the present day. This classification periods of development of the English language was proposed by Henry Sweet (1845 - 1912). Let us dwell on the essential features of grammatical structures in Old English.