Multi Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a strand of Staphylococcus aureus that has become resistant to many commonly used antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus is an infectious disease that is mostly harmless. However, upon entering the body, it can cause various types of infections in almost any part or organ system within the body. These infections include skin infections, invasive infections, and in rare cases it may cause illness.
An endospore is a dormant of a bacterial cell. It is a non-reproductive structure that ensures survival of a bacterium through stressful environmental conditions. Unknown #76, using aseptic technique, was inoculated to a nutrient sporulation medium (NSM) plate. This concerns a selective medium that increases the initiation of endospore production. A spore-former would have green-pigmented endospore cells when looked at under the microscope. From the growth on the NSM, I smeared it aseptically to a wet slide. Slide was then left to be air-dried for about 10 minutes. It was important to heat fix the slide using a micro incinerator. The succeeding steps had to be taken with caution because the primary stain, malachite green, is toxic. Under the hood, the slide was covered with a properly cut size of paper towel. The slide was then stained and left to steam with malachite green. It was continuously followed up by applications of the stain so it may remain moist for 10 minutes. The slide was then rinsed and safranin was again used as a counterstain. Using oil immersion objective lens of the microscope, unknown #76 had only reddish-pink cells without any signs of spore formation. Thus the given unknown is a non-spore former. Bacillus subtilis was used for positive control and Escherichia coli for negative control for endospore
Our world is composed of many bacteria’s’ that can either help or destroy us. Therefore, its’s imperative to learn and study them. The purpose of the lab was to put into action the methods that have been learned in the laboratory to determine our unknown bacteria.
Staphylococcus epidermidis is the organism that was identified based on the tests that I had conducted. The tests that I used to identify this organism were the coagulase test and the catalase test. My bacterium was beta hemolytic as well. First, a gram stain had to be done to determine whether the organism was a gram positive organism or a gram negative organism. This determined which set of tests that had to be done. My bacterium turned out to be gram positive. When conducting these tests, I only had to do the coagulase test and the catalase test because when doing the catalase test, the reaction was that it had bubbled. If it did not bubble, or have a positive reaction, then I would not have had to do the coagulase test. Also, since my bacterium caused a positive catalase test, I only had to do the coagulase test and no other tests. This is because with staphylococcus organisms, these are the only tests
Dr. Seuss once said, “a person is a person, no matter how small”. Children are often looked at as properties of parents and our caretakers instead of actual human beings. Often time’s people mistreat and under nurture their children because they do not see them as equal human beings. Some parent/caretakers over nature and over care their children. In a world where so many things are often happening to everyone people are often misinterpreting medical problems with signs of abuse.
Inflammation is the main type of innate immunity our body uses against A. schmiddy. Inflammation begins by activating acute-phase proteins, and soon after vasodilation occurs, followed by redness, swelling, pain, and heat. Once vasodilation occurs, histamine and kinins are released and blood vessels permeability is increased, causing white blood cells to report to the infected area. One problem associated with inflammation is that the capsule of A. schmiddy is an important virulence factor, which helps the bacteria to resists phagocytosis. Because the phagocytes cannot destroy the bacteria cells, infection further continues and necrotic tissue forms. Once innate immunity has seemed to fail, adaptive immunity sets in. Adaptive immunity is the body’s defense against a specific pathogen. One protein that A. schmiddy has is known as the Opa protein which, in short, inhibits the T Helper cells. Opa proteins inhibits T Helper cells (CD4+ cells) so antigens presented on MCHII is not recognized so B cells are not activated and cytokines are not released. Therefore, TH1, TH2, and TH17 are not activated, resulting in macrophages, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils not being recruited. Since Helper T cells are one of the most important cells in our body’s immune response, without them our body cannot defend itself against many pathogens (Alberts
When given an unknown bacteria there are a multitude of steps one must go through to be able to correctly identify what bacteria was given. It is important to correctly identify the bacteria because some bacteria are more harmful than others. The gram stain is the first test that should be performed because it helps narrow down the possibilities by telling one whether the bacteria is gram positive or gram negative. After this test is performed, one shall place bacteria on/in Mannitol Salt agar, MacConkey agar, Eosin Methylene Blue agar, Urea agar, Simmon’s Citrate, Purple Beef broth with Lactose and finally Purple Beef broth with Sucrose. A streak plate should also be made up, this helps one identify the morphology of the colonies. Once the streak plate has been inoculated, and colonies have grown, the Catalase test would then be performed. After receiving the results from all the tests listed above, it has been concluded that Escherichia Coli was the unknown bacteria.
The first task that I had to do upon receiving my unknown was making two subcultures of it. The “stock” culture would serve as my emergency backup in case my bug got contaminated, while the “working” culture was the one I would utilize to perform the biochemical tests. The next
Good and bad bacteria exist in our environment, depending on which one enters the body the immune system these bacteria can either compromise or aid the immune system’s illness fighting capabilities. In class we learned that the skin aids in fighting infection by acting as a protective barrier. In addition, we discussed how normal flora is found on the skin and aids in the defense mechanism because it fights off potential threats by competing with them. The normal flora consists of microorganisms such as protozoa, fungi and bacteria. The normal flora will compete with the foreign bacteria for nutrients and space and has the ability to push out or starve the invader as said in class.
S. epidermidis was resistant or sensitive to the different antibiotics. In healthcare, the physician utilizes the same information from the lab to determine the course of treatment. If the physician is unable to diagnose the exact cause of the infection, they
Klebsiella pneumonia or also known as Friedlanders bacillus is a disease that is found in humans and animals. The genus is named after Edwin Klebs a 19th century German Microbiologist. Klebsiella begin in soil and the water on plants. K. pneumonia is found in the digestive and respiratory systems causing lobar pneumonia, meningitis, urinary tract infections, and would infections. Klebsiella is part of the family Enterobacteriaceae and belongs to the genus Klebsiella. This bacterium is nonmotile, rod-shaped, and gram-negative bacilli. K. pneumonia is facultative anaerobic meaning they can grow with or without oxygen. They do not form spores and are capable of forming capsules.
Fitness centers that are opened to the public have been said to be the possible main source for transmitting bacterial infections throughout the community. Although, the overall variety of the bacterial groups living on the surfaces in these indoor centers is still not known. Samples from skin-contact surfaces were collected
The cell is the structural and functional unit of life. All living organisms on earth are made up of one or more cells. Bacteria is single cellular microscopic organism. The singular world of bacteria is bacterium.Bacteria have been grouped into prokaryotic, which means absence of nucleus. Basically organisms could be
Staphylococcus Aureus belongs to the extremely common bacteria of microflora of the skin and mucous membranes of the humans. These pathogens cause many infections, including superficial and deep purulent infections, poisoning, urinary tract infection etc. In the US, staphylococcus bacteria are supposed to be the leading cause of sepsis, postoperative wound and prosthesis infections. In addition, staphylococcus belongs to one of the leading causes of bacterial food poisoning. Staphylococcus Aureus is one of the most dangerous human pathogen. It is highly virulent with the high rate of resistance to the treatment and antimicrobial infectious agents. The mentioned above proves that the Epidemiology of Staph. Auerus as foodborne pathogen requires