Human beings are hosts for many bacterial species that colonize our skin as their natural flora. The skin acts as a superior barrier and first line of defense against bacterial infections. When they do occur, these infections are mild and easily treatable; however some can become very serious and even life-threatening. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes are uncommon bacteria, but they are responsible for a wide variety of bacterial pyodermas . In some cases, the host for bacterial infections can become contagious to others. In this paper, 40 patients were presented with a visible skin infection, and all have similar manifestations of symptoms. These patients do not seem to be responding to the current antimicrobial therapy. …show more content…
They can cause diseases from direct contact (infection) or production of toxins by the bacteria. Examples of a Staphylococcus disease are boils, impetigo, food poisoning, cellulitis, and toxic shock syndrome . MRSA is a form of bacterial infection that is resistant to many antibiotics including methicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, and oxacillin, which makes it challenging to treat this infection . When patients are suspected of a bacterial infection, the primary step would be to see if they have been in the same area. If they have, have they shared any personal items or attended activities or been to places that involved in crowding, skin-to-skin contact, and shared equipments or supplies. This might include athletes, students and staff in the school, military personnel, and people who recently received inpatient hospital care . Although the information was not given in a great detail, some common skin infections can be eliminated because of the fact that they did not respond to microbial therapy and type of symptoms. One of the examples is the recent discovery of Propionibacterium acnes. In the studies, there are "good" and "bad" strains of the bacteria. The bacteria can aggravate an immune response which causes redness, swollen bumps to develop on the skin (acne), or pus. Acnes have been treated the same over the past few decades, raising the concerns for long-term antibiotic use that cause bacterial resistance …show more content…
The sample of the organism is to isolate visible colonies in pure culture (e.g. on agar plates). The identification is based on taxonomic principles applied to the clinical microbiological situation. These classical methods for speciation of bacteria are based on morphological and metabolic characteristics. Susceptibility testing of isolates (i.e. establishing the minimal inhibitory concentration or MIC) can help in selection of antibiotics for therapy . Additionally, molecular methodology (for characterization of specific genes or gene segments) is now common
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ABSTRACT Wound is a breach in the skin and the exposure of subcutaneous tissue following loss of skin integrity. Post-operative wound infections are major global problem in the field of surgery leading to many complications, increased morbidity and mortality. A total 75 pus samples were collected from post-operative wound infections of which 63/75 (84%) bacterial isolates were obtained. Among the isolates, 29/63 (46%) were Gram positive and 34/63 (54%) were Gram negative organisms.
I used the measurements and compared them again with the Antibiotic Susceptibility zone chart. I was able to determine whether the S. epidermidis was resistant or sensitive to the different antibiotics. In healthcare, the physician utilizes the same information from the lab to determine the course of treatment. If the physician is unable to diagnose the exact cause of the infection, they
Microbial Evolution – Staphylococcus aureus Name: Sean Lin Class: E8J Date: May 23th, 2016 Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is a species of bacteria that belongs to Staphylococcus genus, and it is generally found in the nose, respiratory tracks and on skin. Staphylococcus appears as a form like a grape clusters when looking through a microscope, and it has large, golden colonies.
Preforming adequate hand hygiene practices in the health care setting has been shown to be one of the most important steps taken in the prevention and transmission of potentially harmful germs. Because of their high exposure to microbes and patient contact, it is especially important that health care workers adhere to hand hygiene. When a health care worker lapses in completing this simple task they become the conduit for the spreading of infections. Hand hygiene refers to hand washing, hand antisepsis, and maintenance of hand health. The focus of these processes is the removal or destruction of resident and transient microorganisms.
7. Ensure that sores on exposed skin surfaces of are covered with a watertight dressing while in school or at work Related diseases Allergy, cellulitis, tinea infections, erysipelas, cellulitis, impetigo, dermatitis References 1. Folliculitis, follicular mucinosis, and papular mucinosis as a presentation of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Rashid R, Hymes S. Dermatol Online J. 2009 May
Humans are natural hosts for many bacterial species that colonize the skin as normal flora. The skin acts as an excellent barrier against bacterial infections and when they do occur, they are mild and easily treatable; however some can become very serious and even life threatening. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes are uncommon, but they account for a wide variety of bacterial pyodermas . Some bacterial infections can be contagious as well. In this paper, 40 patients were presented with a visible skin infection, and all have similar manifestations of symptoms.
Ignaz Semmelweis is known as the pioneer of antiseptic procedures being the first to introduce the role of hand hygiene in preventing person to person cross contamination. Semmelweis reduced mortality in the maternity ward to about 1% in 1861. Hospital acquired infections occur in 10% of US hospital patients and not only weighs on the mortality rate but also causes extra expenditure that can be quite substantial. While some nosocomial infections are harder to avoid, 10%-15% of these infections is said to be avoidable through proper hand hygiene. The question is no longer whether or not hand hygiene affects the rate of nosocomial infections but whether or not health care workers adequately adhere to hand hygiene practices, and if not, what has to be done to insure that they do.
Hand washing is the single most important technique that a person can use in preventing the spread of infection. There is good reason to worry about infectious diseases right now, and not just because of Ebola (Winters, 2014). With flu season in full bloom and the lack of hand washing from most persons the public and health care workers are susceptible to contracting colds, influenza, gastrointestinal disorders, and more. Through proper hand washing techniques the chance for contracting such diseases can be greatly reduced. Health care workers and the public have three types of hand hygiene to choose from.
Hand washing is a crucial skill which should be part of everyday activities, as this removes or reduces the number of microorganisms from your hand (Pratt et al 2007). This will reduce any potential transmission of microorganisms directly to others or to surfaces where they can be picked up by others. Also patients should be encouraged and assisted to wash their hands (Banfied et al 2005), because the likelihood of microorganisms spreading is further reduced. Handwashing is particularly important in health care workers, because contaminated hands of a health care worker is the primary source of infection transmission in a health care setting. These days the main focus has been on nurses in general practice, this is because nurses are not minimising
At anytime, over 1.4 million people worldwide suffer from infectious complications acquired in hospital. The highest frequencies of nosocomial infections were reported from hospitals in the Eastern Mediterranean and South-East Asia Regions (11.8 and 10.0%) respectively in the Western pacific regions. In the United States, the centers for disease control and prevention estimated that roughly 1.7 million hospital associated infections, from all types of bacteria combined, cause or contribute to 99,000 deaths each year. Reports from the National Nosocomial infection Surveillance (NNIS) system have revealed that the urinary tract, the respiratory tract, blood stream, and wounds are the most common nosocomial infection sites. The microorganism that cause nosocomial infections can originate from the client themselves (an endogenous source) or from the hospital environment and hospital personnel (exogenous sources).
The main reasons for developing a HCAI are poor hand hygiene by healthcare staff, medical device related infections such as intravenous lines and urinary catheters and the overuse or improper use antimicrobials. Hand hygiene is the cornerstone measure to prevent healthcare associated infection (HCAI) and it has been shown that MRSA is primarily transmitted from patient to patient via the hands of healthcare professionals (Donskey, 2009). Although hand hygiene is the simplest, most effective and most cost effective way to prevent the spread of HCAIs (Pratt et al. 2007) (Kilpatrick et al. 2013), adherence to hand hygiene among health care professionals remains low worldwide (WHO, 2009).
SectionІІ: Overview of infection prevention for general clinical practice: According to Tietjen 2008, microorganisms are the causative agents of infection. They include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. In the context of infection prevention, bacteria can be further divided into three categories: vegetative (e.g., staphylococcus), mycobacteria (e.g., tuberculosis), and endospores (e.g., tetanus), which are the most difficult to kill.
Antibiotic resistance is precisely what it sounds like: the resistance towards some antibiotics bacteria may develop. This can lead to antibiotics being rendered useless while a person tries to fend off a disease. Over the years, this dilemma has only intensified as numerous bacteria have become resistant to countless antibiotics. Therefore, researchers and scientists alike have endeavored in figuring out not only the main culprit of antibiotic resistance, but also the multiple techniques to minimize antibiotic resistance along with the ramifications of antibiotic resistance in former and future generations. Antibiotic resistance is not a dilemma that has appeared spontaneously and without warning.