Hans Morgenthau formulates the basic principles of political realism. Initially, the author justifies the idea that the basis of international politics are the laws of political behavior, the roots of which should be sought in human nature. He tried to substantiate the idea that the power is associated with the immutability of human nature and it is the basis of the state’s behavior on the world stage. He believes that the world is imperfect. To create a rationally justified political order, it is necessary to take into account the imperfect nature of man.
1.2 Power Definition Of Power Power is "The ability to effect the outcomes you want, and if necessary to change the behavior of others in order to make this happen" – Nye We can say that power is about a relationship whose strength and domain will vary with different contexts. Those with more power in a relationship are better placed to make and resist change. Empirical studies have shown that the more powerful are less likely to take on the perspective of others . Power is one of the most important thing to the politic. This is because politik is base on some form of power and its sources may be highly varied and complex .
It places the greatest importance not on state actors, but on the institutions and norms that exist in the international system (Karns, p. 59). Unlike Realism, Social Constructivism suggests that interests and identities of states can in fact change and are not assumed to be fixed. For example, the institution of state sovereignty is important, but the idea of what sovereignty is has changed as the social beliefs, cultural, and norms of states change (Karns, p. 59). According to this theory, the greatest means to affect these kinds of socially constructed changes is through multilateralism. Also in contrast to Realism, Social Constructivism purposes that IGOs have actual power, and their power comes not from their need to enforce authority, but their ability to act impartially as vessels for cooperation, and as actors that can teach and create new norms (Karns, p.
The phenomenon of "interdependence", defined as a situation in which two or more nations each depend on the other, whether symmetrically or not, by virtue of trade and investment patterns, population flows, or even cultural and other social exchanges, can be analyzed from either a Realist or a Liberal perspective. Realists focus only on the impact of interdependence on the power differential between the nations concerned, whereas Liberals analyze it as an international social phenomenon. Realists look for concentrations of state power, Liberals focus on the ways in which interdependence encourages and allows individuals and groups to exert different pressures on national governments. Before discussing in what ways does a consideration of interdependence challenge the realist analysis of the prospects for international co-operation in pursuit of absolute gains, let us briefly elaborate Realism and the Realist arguments about international co-operation. Realists have many factions; all generally share the similar assumptions about international relations.
Globalization refers to change in technology which have facilitated the movement of money, information and people beyond the control of nation-states. International intergovernmental organizations are created by states. Organization such as the North Atlantic treaty and the European are well known organizations and they have powerful in internationals relations. The United Nations is solving disputes and arguments between state and they are work together to fight against warfare. The relationships between peace and development are interdependent and it requires the state to play the leading role to coordinate the world circumstance and to protect the world
Even defensively motivated efforts by states to provide for their own security through armaments, alliances, and deterrent threats are often perceived as threatening and lead to counter-actions and conflict spirals that are difficult to reverse.” This is exactly what happened in WWI. Even the defensive actions of Britain and France to maintain the status quo were misinterpreted as offensive actions, which reinforced the security dilemma. At its core, the realist theory argues that the distribution of power within a system, and the actions taken to balance this power, is the primary factor in shaping international
Based on realists argument, we can assume that the cause of The Cold War were security dilemma, arms race and balance of power. Security dilemma, arms race and balance of power are three different things but they have a connection one to another. These three things happen in a same path. These three things happen continuously and connectively. They happen because of a reason based on the issue that comes up in the international system, and most of the reason is because of the power of the states.
Realism predicts that anarchy fosters hostile conditions in which states must inevitably merge into alliances with or against each other in order to balance asymmetrical power. This key concept is known as The Balance Of Power and is fundamental to realism as theory. These elements of realism are at the root of its logic and are key to understanding realist’s theory. (Mearsheimer, 1995) (mtholyoke.ed, n.d) (Synder, 2008) (Walts,
I think that the states are slowly shifting again into realist ideology because of what is happening, even though United States can still handle the issues of the world, they themselves cannot settle the issues that can affect their economic ties. The hegemon can only impose economic sanction to a state that violates the international law. 2. Why do Mercantilist believe that the international economy is a source of conflict rather than
In an increasingly complex world, new actor in international relationships emerges. At the beginning of the emergence of the main actor who plays the role is the State. But the State is no longer called dominant, but still a major actor among other influential actors. Each actor has its own impact in international relations because a State is the supreme power holder (Liberalism / Idealism) that the State plays a dominant role to do good cooperation between countries and is expected to create world peace. Requirement of sovereignty of a country among which must have the people, must have the territory, have the government, and recognized the independence by other countries in the world.