CHAPTER-I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Fig (Ficus Carica L.) Fig, Ficus carica, is one of the ancient fruits known to mankind which also finds its mention in the Bible. It is reported to be under cultivation from 3000-2000 BC in the eastern Mediterranean region. The fig fruit is unique. Unlike most 'fruit' in which the structure is matured ovary tissue, the fig's edible structure is actually a stem tissue. The fig fruit is an inverted flower with both male and female flower parts enclosed in stem tissue, botanically known as a syconium.
PF-SPK-100R was composed of a fucogalactoxyloglucan (∼68%) and an arabinoxylan. Finally, this paper brings important features of xyloglucans found in prunes, and provides new insights into the diversity of fruit hemicellulosic polymers. Keywords: Prunes/ Prunus domestica/ Polysaccharides/ Xyloglucan/ Structural characterization. 1. Introduction Xyloglucans
The absorbance was measured at 120nm within 10min. Saponin determination The method used was that of Obadoni and Ochuko (2001). The samples were ground and 20g of each were put into a conical flask and 100cm3 of 20% aqueous ethanol were added. The samples were heated over a hot water bath for 4 hours with continuous stirring at about 550C. The mixture was filtered and the residue re-extracted with another 200ml 20% ethanol.
One unit (U) of glucoamylase is defined as the amount that liberates 1 µmol of reducing sugar as glucose/ml/min under the assay condition. One ml of the diluted enzyme extract was added to 1.0 ml of 5% soluble starch solution prepared in acetate buffer (pH 4.8). The enzyme substrate mixture was incubated at 60 0 C for one hour. Then 2 ml of Dinitrosalicylic acid reagent (DNS) was added to each test tube. The test tubes were placed in boiling water for 5 minutes and cooled to room temperature.
Transformation #1 corresponds to the tube to which ligation #1 was added, and so on for each of the four transformations. After ligations were added each solution was chilled on ice for 5 minutes then heat shocked at 42° C for 5 minutes, then again chilled on ice for 2 minutes. To each tube was then added 80 μL room temperature Luria Broth. After which the solutions were incubated at 37° C for 45 minutes. Each solution was then plated on an LB/kanamycin/IPTG plate.
Dialysis membrane having a pore size 2.4 nm and molecular weight cut off between 12,000 and 14,000 was used. The membrane was soaked in double distilled water for 12 hr. before mounting in a Franz diffusion cell. About 1ml of semisolid preparation of NLC was applied to the donor compartment, and the receptor compartment was filled with phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 (14 ml). During the experiment, the solution in the receptor side was maintained at 370C and stirred at 800 rpm with Teflon coated magnetic stirrer bar.
An aliquot of 2.5ml was mixed with 2.5 ml of 200 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.6) and 2.5 ml of 1% potassium ferricyanide. The mixture was incubated at 50oC for 20 minutes and then 2.5 ml of 10% trichloroacetic acid was added. This mixture was centrifuged at 800 × g for 10 min. An aliquot of 5 mL of the supernatant was mixed with an equal volume of water and 1 ml of 0.1% ferric chloride. The absorbance was measured at 700 nm and ferric reducing power was subsequently calculated using ascorbic acid
Control leaves were treated similarly with dH2O. Mock-inoculated and infected plants were sampled 1, 4 and 7 days post-treatment. The sampling process occurred biologically thrice, all of which were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and kept finally at - 80C for further analyses. 2.2. Extraction of the apoplastic fluid Leaf apoplastic fluid were obtained from the whole citrus leaves by vacuum-infiltration-centrifugation method (Dani et al., 2005).
Leaves are pinnate , and consist of 9-17 alternate oblong to lanceolate leaflets . The flowers are small (1 cm long), have purple to whitish blue colour, while its pods (2-3 cm) are flat, have an oblong to linear shape [5, 21], have a smooth surface , turn brown at maturity and contain 1-7 seeds [5, 21]. Lastly, seeds present a dark colour, a reniform shape and small size, with a diameter of about 2.5 mm and a thousand seeds weight of 6.2 g [21,