Introduction to glycogen and glucose Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi. The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose in the body. In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and the muscles hydrated with three or four parts of water. Glycogen functions as the secondary long-term energy storage, with the primary energy stores being fats held in adipose tissue. Muscle glycogen is converted into glucose by muscle cells, and liver glycogen converts to glucose for use throughout the body including the central nervous system.
Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are generally sugars and their derivatives. Animals and humans break down carbohydrates during metabolism and release energy. E.g, chemical metabolism for sugar and glucose is C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy Animals and humans gains carbohydrates by eating foods that contain carbohyrates , e.g rice, potatoes,breads, etc. Carbohydrates are prepared by plants during photosynthesis. Plants gain energy from sunlight to carry on the reaction 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy (sunlight) C6H12O6 + 6 O2 For example, a potato, contains glucose molecules manufactured by process of photosynthesis.
There are 12 tiers in a mature glycogen particle. c) Cellulose Cellulose is a carbohydrate which is the principal component of vegetal wall and wood. Cellulose is the most abundant component on earth. The cellulose molecule is a linear unbranched homopolysaccharide. Glucose residues have the beta configuration, so they are linked by (beta1 4) glycosidic bonds.
Glucose is the source of energy in cell function, and regulation of its metabolism. Molecules of starch are the main energy-reserve carbohydrate of plants consists of thousands of linear glucose units. Another major and linear compound composed of glucose is cellulose [Glucose]. Protein is found throughout the body in the
From an energy point of view carbohydrates represent the most valuable of the food components (Processing, n.d.). The basic structure of carbohydrates is a sugar molecule and this macro nutrient is classified in terms by how many molecules the structure contain. There are simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates contain mostly fructose and glucose sugar molecules that combine to form a disaccharide. Complex carbohydrates contain polysaccharides and this includes starches, fiber, and glycogen.
It is the glucagon that helps the liver to break down the food you eat to manufacture glucose. When the blood sugar level drops too low, it’s the glucagon, which maintains your health from adverse effects. Glucagon works with liver transforming a stored glucose in the liver as glycogen to glucose and put it to the bloodstream. This won’t allow the liver to absorb the excess quantity of glucose to it, instead, it stimulates the conversion of glycogen to the glucose
Drugs are defined as chemical substances that are used to prevent or cure diseases in humans, animals and plants. The activity of a drug is its pharmacological effect on the subject (person). Drugs act by interfering with biological processes, so no drug is completely safe. All drugs can act as poisons if taken in excess. For example, overdoses of paracetamol can cause coma and death.
Cellulose is also a polymer of glucose but it cannot be digested by most organisms. Doctors and scientists aonce believed that eating complex carbohydrates instead of sugar would help maintain lower blood pressure. Numerous studies suggest that both sugar and starches produce an unpredictable range of glycemic and insulinemic responses. While other studies reveal that many complex carbohydrates such as those found in bread, rice, and potatoes have glycemic indices similar to or higher than simple carbohydrates such as sucrose. Sucrose, for example, has a glycemic index lower than expected because the sucrose molecule is half fructose, which has little effect on blood