We are saturated with messages propagated by mass media. Through this, it has the ability to be especially harmful when comparing gender, race and/or class on the grounds that it constructs negative perceptions of those involved. Furthermore, reinforcing them on a daily basis albeit through cinema or advertising. It offers the public a way to frame what subcultures do and proves to be notoriously problematic because they often lack the state of being precise. Media is still vital because it can be used to socialize and on the other hand to make decisions and formulates opinions: it builds up the notoriety of vices.
(Jackson, 1987). It is the cycle of poverty based on race. When an ethnic group, or a specific race does not have job opportunities as much as dominant group does, they make less money, so that they can only afford cheap residences in isolated neighborhoods, they are excluded and as a result they cannot easily get jobs since they have been excluded. Even housing demand of ethnic groups is supplied by a governmental agencies, it fails to look for locations near jobs and important infrastructure, like working schools, decent public transportation, and other services. (GIA, 2009) Another relevant example relating to institutional racism is that, in nearly all West European countries, Labor market legislation discriminates against foreigners.
As mentioned earlier, the stereotypical thinking is the way to nowhere and destructively branch in the development of relations and cooperation between people. People have to understand that stereotypes are always present in our everyday life and do not disappear on us. That is why it is important to distinguish between the subjective opinion of a folded about people of a particular nationality from reality, which is proving to be a very different side of the coin. As mentioned in the previous sections - the world has become global and very successful cooperation is necessary not to look at stereotypes and accept people as they are. Over stereotypes can laugh in humorous TV show, but in any case not be guided by them when dealing in real life as it might offend someone else.
My research included examples and information related to racial microaggressions and the impacts as it related to media exposure, such as movies and TV shows. The film industry acts as a stabilizing force when it comes to forming preconceived notions about African Americans as it has impacted our belief and value systems. We expect them to be athletically built, deviant, and angry. We no longer view them as unique individuals, rather a group of individuals that possess the same characteristics and skills. This not only affects our way of viewing them, but it also impacts those individuals being stereotyped.
Kulaszewicz (2015) concludes that through the biased representation of black males in the US media, the creation and maintenance of the image of blacks as dangerous and violent is being facilitated. Similar results were found by Pious and Neptune (1997), who looked at minority and gender representations in fashion magazines. The study shows that the majority of the surveyed African-Americans feel that advertising conveys at least subtle messages of gender inequality, with people arguing that the advertising industry has played a significant role in America’s racial problem. Morris and Kahlor (2014) tried to explore “the existence of racial identity and color-blind
A study entitled “Gendered Media: The influence of Media on Gender” stated that: Of the many influences on how we view men and women, media are the pervasive and one of the most powerful. Woven throughout our daily lives, media insinuate their messages into our consciousness at every turn. All forms of media communicate images of the sexes. (Wood 31) As stated above, gender depictions could be observe in
Theresa Belton discusses the very concept of influence regarding media and points out that the influence isn’t just on our opinions but rather the media's influence on our ideas, thoughts and perceptions in such ways that we are not even aware of it. The media is recognised throughout studies as being the most powerful influential force especially regarding how we see ourselves. Many studies on the topic have been conducted using the assumption of the influence that the media has, and how it can cause harm due to it’s widespread belief. There has been a surge in the number of studies, experiments and theories in the last few years regarding the connection between media representations and self esteem and self image. We live in a world where media is easily accessible and is wherever we go, therefore according to Cashmore we are constantly bombarded by endless imagery, representation and stereotypes and it is inevitable that they begin to shape who we are and how we see ourselves.
The only difference is that instead of unconsciously showing off some negative views on a specific race, symbolic racism is characterized by outwardly acting unprejudiced while inwardly maintaining prejudiced attitudes. In other words, people who practice symbolic racism would have the ability of distinguishing racial discriminations and would usually tend to avoid phanic circumstances of showing their prejudice toward a certain race, yet they would display subtle prejudiced behaviors in cases not easily discovered. This type of unconspicuous racism has been shown some serious implications on decision making in employment, in legal decisions and in helping behavior. For instance, in 2015, an American-born Indian student named Vijay Chokal-Ingram faced the time of his life to apply for med school. As a mediocre student with average GPA, Vijay still wanted to go to an upscale medical school to pursue his dreams, but due to his middling grades, he was rejected by most of the schools that he applied for.
Stereotypes have a negative effect when published throughout the mass media. First, the differentiating gender roles in modern societies can be a perfect example of the negative social effects of using stereotypes in mass media. Nowadays, the differences between male and female roles are smaller, however mass media still perpetuates traditional gender stereotypes still seen in TV series. The man has been and is still considered to be the financial provider, assertive and independent, whereas the woman is shown in lower-position jobs and careers, responsible for raising children and doing housework. For example: in the series, "Desperate Housewives", the wives in the program are always dressed to the nines and made up heavily, adorned in expensive jewels and high heels.
These applicants are 50% less likely than other applicants perceived as having “white sounding names” to be recalled for interviews. • Institutional racism As the name suggests, institutional racism is discrimination based on race by large entities such as governments, corporations, religions or educational institutions with the mightiness to profoundly affect the lives of many individuals. • Historical economic/ Social