What he means is that one’s sex derives from one’s reproductive organs and genital configurations , whereas gender refers to the amount of stereotypical femininity and masculinity a person exhibits. Gayle Rubin, for instance, uses the term ‘sex/gender system’ in order to describe “a set of arrangements by which the biological raw material of human sex and procreation is shaped by human, social intervention” (1975, 165). To inhibit one’s gender means having to learn behaviour, manners, gestures and attitudes that our culture deems appropriate to each sex. It is through learning these patterns that we become socialized and gendered, moving from our individual anatomical sex (being male or female) to a processed social product (behaving as a man or woman). From the social and cultural expectations for a man and the manner and degree to which he acknowledges and lives up to them we derive the concept of masculinity; those applicable to a woman, together with her compliance with them, we think of as femininity.
The gender binary is the reduction of gender into strictly a male or female identity. However, gender is a spectrum and is not limited to two options. The binary is an “effect of a […] taxonomic gender process that perpetually re-sorts (and reinterprets) all complex gender operations […] back into comprehensible dual alignment of bodies” (Roof 3). Individuals who cannot conform to the two categories are oppressed and ostracized. Similarly, a sexual dimorphic system is the regulation of two body types, masculine and feminine, based on genital anatomy and secondary sexual characteristics; it therefore becomes a technology for heterosexual reproduction because biological bodies “must” align with the sexual binary to be acknowledged (Preciado
According to sexologists John Money and Anke Ehrhardt, sex and gender are separate categories. “Sex, they argued, refers to physical attributes and is anatomically and physiologically determined. Gender they saw as a psychological transformation - the internal conviction that one is either male or female (gender identity) and the behavioral expressions of that conviction” (Sterling 4). Although there are biological differences between the two sexes, but gender roles are socially constructed. They determine how males and females should think, speak, dress, behave and interact with society. Richard Dawkins states in his book, The Selfish Gene that we are merely a product of our genes and our main purpose in life is to serve the genes, become distribution agents and ensure their continuance (Nye, Savage and Watts 273) .
Sex is scientifically defined as the biological differences found between human beings. Offering this definition Stein and Plummer are able to pronounce the ideology of many people in society as well as scholars. This is an ideology that highlights the reasons why people on a large scale would define these categories as deviant or problematized. Stein and Plummer remark that “Such studies tend to replicate social divisions,implicitly reasserting the exotica of difference ”(pg.179). In context clearly illustrates the need of people to recognize and judge the abnormalities that have not been normalized by society.
West and Fenstermaker (1995, 9) argued that “there is a need for new models to rethink intersections of systems of oppression and how structures of power are organised around intersecting relations of race, class, and gender to frame social positions of individuals...and to produce social locations for us all” (cited in Valentine 2007, 13). In this sense, West and Fenstermaker (1995) emphasised that identities are situated accomplishments and not individual attributes where gender, race, and class are simultaneously experiences by an individual. These situated accomplishments are often accomplished through interaction with others where more fluids come together to create positions, identities, and differences which can be made and unmade, claimed and rejected (cited in Valentine 2007, 13-14). It is further stressed by West and Fenstermaker that these accomplishments are accountable within institutional
To understand the linkage between sexuality and gender, it is important to reimagine the relationship between sexuality and gender and the rapport they hold with self-identification. Not long ago, sexuality was tied to procreation - becoming the core of one’s identity. Gender had always been tied to biological sex. However, a crisis of gender identity emerged and blurred the gender and sexuality binaries that had become commonplace social facts. A fluidity was created that allowed individuals to not feel the pressure of fitting inside distinct identification categories.
How that relates to the readings is the Gender Binary discussed in chapter one or two, what makes a person male or female. As the book explains, we all have different glasses on how we define or see a person’s gender identity. Instead of society stereotyping for others on what makes us too masculine or feminine, we should focus on our own happiness. 2. How does the discussion of sex verses gender emerge from this documentary?
Gloria Anzaldúa’s, Borderlands La Frontera: A New Mestiza , Chapter 2 “Movimientos de Rebeldía y las Culturas que Traiciona” and Monica Palacios’s “La Llorona Loca: The Other Side” can be considered a part of the Latinx literature cannon. My research strives to determine how heteronormative ideology influences the reconstruction of queer narratives in both these texts. I also strive to assess how heteronormative ideology manifests itself through the body. Before one can understand how heteronormative ideology influences reconstruction it is vital to discover where heteronormativitiy is found.
This is so because intersectionality theory has highlighted the need to consider other multiple axes of social categories such as age, gender, ability, class, and so on when doing feminist studies as these social categories can serve in producing the lived experiences of an individual. Moreover, intersectionality in feminist geography calls for a reengagement with questions of structural inequalities and power (Valentine 2007, 19). Considering that intersectionality is not primarily about identities, Crenshaw (1991) stresses that intersectionality is about how structures make certain identities, the consequence of the vehicle for vulnerability. Therefore, it is crucial for human feminist geographers to be able to see the context of the discrimination as in what kind of discrimination is at play, what are the policies, the institutional structures that play a role in contributing to the exclusion of some others and not
A gender based analysis of the work operates along with other analyses to provide a wider understanding of the message Kafka intended to convey. The traditional psychoanalytic, Marxist and biographical interpretations of the text work in conjunction with the gender approach when analyzing Kafka’s writing. The gender focus is convincing because both Gregor and Grete Samsa undergo physical and mental changes, both experience the modification of their socially defined roles, and Kafka’s personal struggle with his self-image and women are reflected in the narrative. Straus’ reliable gender role examination of “Metamorphosis” expands on the traditional psychoanalytic commentary by exploring the relationship between the physical and mental changes that consume Gregor Samsa and simultaneously mobilize his sister, Grete. Customary psychoanalytic views of Kafka’s work interpret the transformation as an outward demonstration of Gregor’s internal state.
There are institutions who have adopted useful and good norms that ought to be adopted by other institutions, especially the trans-politics. These institutions understand too well the diversity of nature and why some things are the way they are. According to Spade, these are the institutions to be copied because they have the interests of the marginalized people at heart. Most of these institutions have been created by scientists and doctors who according to their research have documented reasons why they think people are the way they are. For instance, homosexuality is associated with sexual identity and that knowing someone’s sexual desires is an important way of identifying who they regard to gender.
LGBTQ is a new concept and will have many flaws. But unlike the other schools of theory, it is based on its own ideas of sexuality and the way a text should be visualized. In general, LGBTQ primarily focuses on make sexual orientation an important part of a literary work because everyone’s experiences matter in the end, homosexual or
This article is able to set aside heterosexist thinking that affects treatment not only for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered (LGBT) community, but the subliminal implications society places of heterosexual violence dynamics. Ultimately additional social change must occur to better understand intimate partner violence and eradicate the
We live in a society that tries to dictate who you should be, and what you should do based on your gender. Gender identity should be whether we internally identify as male or female, but instead is often only defined by society and our anatomical sex. According to Yarber and Sayad, (2012) a person’s sex is determined by genetics and anatomical sex characteristics that identify whether a person is male or female.