Whether the IQ test can unconditionally determine an individual’s intelligence has been debated by psychologists and researches for centuries. The intelligence quotient also known as an IQ test is regarded as an accurate assessment of an individual’s intelligence and learning potential. Based on this background, this paper is going to discuss there is more than one single type of intelligence by demonstrating how intelligence is identified, categorised and defined. This paper will initially explore how intelligence does not have a fixed definition and what the IQ test measures. It will than discuss the theory of multiple intelligences, the cultural influences, what people consider makes up intelligence and conclude by discussing other individual
For one simple reason, because that the ninth intelligence, meaning the Existential one, has been alluded to by Gardner, yet has never been fully confirmed, endorsed or described. Gardner 's Multiple Intelligences theory is a very useful model for developing a systematic approach to nurturing and teaching children and honouring their individual needs and strengths within a classroom setting. The theory of Multiple Intelligences includes the notion that each person is smart in all seven (or nine) types of intelligences. According to Gardner, each individual possesses each type of intelligence in varying degrees, stronger in some ways and less developed in others. 34 By broadening one’s view of intelligence, as well as valuing and nurturing abilities other than mathematics and reading, doors can be opened by using the strength of children as a means of complementing their less developed area.
Gardner realized intelligence goes beyond being able to learn and retain information. That was why he added interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences to his original seven intelligences (Gardner, 2002). Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory assists supporting the belief that “every individual possesses every single one of the intelligences, but to different extents, and it is through education that each of these intelligences can be nurtured and developed” (Mokhtar, Majid, & Foo, 2008, p. 96). In the theory of multiple intelligences, Gardner tried to show the notion of multiple intelligences. Through his research, Gardner recognized that intelligence is neither fixed nor static.
Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185–211. Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Bobik, C., Coston, T. D., Greeson, C., Jedlicka, C., ... & Wendorf, G. (2001). Emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations. The Journal of social psychology, 141(4), 523-536.
These are such as problem solving skills, abstract reasoning, adaptability to environment, mental processing, speed, creativity, motivation, goal directed behaviour, sensory activity, and the ability to acquire knowledge as well as many other things. People have begun to believe that intelligence takes different forms depending on the requirement of the environment and the culture that one lives in and is raised in. As a result it has been difficult to develop a clear cut definition of intelligence that will suit to everyone’s belief. Intelligence is the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge .It includes the ability to benefit from the past experience, act purposefully, solve problems and adapt to new
THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE INTRODUCTION Throughout history, numerous researchers have suggested different definitions regarding intelligence and that it is a single, general ability, while other researchers believed that the definition of intelligence includes a range of skills. Spearman (general intelligence), Gardner (multiple intelligence) and Goleman (emotional intelligence) have all looked into further research regarding intelligence, where 3 different theories were formed regarding what intelligence is and how it should be defined. Since then, Binet, Simon and Terman have all contributed to intelligence testing. Although, there is still controversy over intelligence testing. WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE?
The employees were then quizzed to compare their capabilities. When Coleman analyzed the results, he determined that cognitive skills were notably important; however, technical skills and IQ were trumped by the importance of emotional intelligence. Furthermore, Coleman discovered that emotional intelligence played a larger role amongst individuals with higher positions throughout the company. When compared, the average performers showed almost 90% lower levels of emotional intelligence, then their counterparts in higher ranking
Dr. Howard Gardner has developed the theory of multiple intelligences (MI) by the research in developmental and neuropsychology which began in the early 1970s. MI theory is based on the belief that human beings posses a complex set of abilities beyond what is measured through traditional Intelligence Quotient (IQ).The theory was first published in his book “Frames of Mind” in 1983. According to Conti (2016, p.1) “This theory views human intelligence as a complex web of abilities that are evident in one 's products and preferences for learning.” Gardner (1995) reported that his concept of intelligences is a derivative of accumulating knowledge about the human brain and human cultures, not based on the result of deduced definitions or of factor
INTRODUCTION: Intelligence and creativity are two chief mental abilities that largely influence the performances and accomplishments of individuals. Intelligence is considered as the “capability to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment”, whereas creativity is regarded as the “ability to generate novel and useful ideas” (Neisser et al., 1996; Sternberg & Lubart, 1999; Wechsler, 1944).The relationship between intelligence and creativity is not fully recognized, although recent research proposes that intelligent people certainly crave higher levels of creativity. Research also implies that intelligence and creativity coincide, meaning that intelligent individuals have a high capacity for creativity, and vice versa. This is slightly contradicts to former ideas that implied creativity raises intelligence levels. It takes only a minimal amount of creativity to exploit on intelligence.
Additionally, when second edition was released ten years later,in an interview with Checkley (1997) headded an eighth and ninth intelligence too, namely “naturalist intelligence” and “existentialist intelligence” to the original list of the multiple intelligences. He also made some assumptions that children can be at different stages of development at different times. GARDNER’S NINE MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES Gardner 's Multiple Intelligences theory distinguishes between nine main types of intelligence: • Verbal-linguistic intelligence (word smart): using language to store, process and transmit information, titled as ‘The word player’ • Logical-mathematical intelligence (number smart): using patterns to think and reason logically and rationally, titled as‘The questioner’ • Musical intelligence (music smart): using music and rhythm to learn, titled as‘The musical