The posterior lip of the tibia usually fractured, the fragment may be large or small. Also included is an avulsion of the medial malleolus or rupture of the deltoid ligament the Weber type C is characterized by a fibular fracture that is entirely above the level of the tibial plafond. A large or small posterior lip fracture often accompanies this injury, as does medial malleolar avulsion or deltoid ligament ruptured. (19) The Lauge Hansen classification was developed to describe cadaver fracture patterns. The first part of the terminology refers to the foot position when the forces start, and the second refers to the major force that is transmitted to the foot.
Compression symptoms affecting adjacent organs. 3. Severe pain on the left side of the abdomen may be due to acute expansion or rupture of the aneurysm. 4. Abdominal distension, shock, and death may occur due to rupture into the peritoneum.
Muscle spasm and stiffness will very often accompany neck pain. Sometimes the muscle spasm and stiffness are your body's attempt to splint the area and limit range of motion, in an effort to protect the more vulnerable structures. In other cases, muscle spasm and stiffness may be the result of stress or muscle strain. In either case, the muscle spasm and stiffness tend to trigger even more pain and inflammation, resulting in a negative feedback loop which can be difficult to interrupt. Other symptoms may be present, including pain which radiates into the shoulder, arm, upper back and/or scapula (shoulder blade.)
Damage to nerves causes peripheral neuropathy, leading to deficits in sensation, autonomic dysfunction and motor impairments. Most patients that develop charcot foot have a high level of peripheral neuropathy. It typically occurs following a minor injury like a sprain or fracture. In the early 1960s Eichenholtz summarized and collected data from literature, clinical and radiographic findings. He
A variety of shoulder disorders are associated with the acromin. (GILL, MCIRVIN, KOCHER et al., 2002; TUCKER and SNYDER, 2004; HAMID, OMID, YAMAGUCHI et al., 2012) and its morphology is an important tool in pathology diagnosis. The shoulder is a complex joint that allows movements of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, external and internal rotations. (Describe the anatomy of the joint- refer last, Grays anatomy) Variations in the architecture of the acromium is the primary etiologic factor in impingement syndrome’s pathogenesis, leading to potential rotator cuff disease. The volume of the subacromial space is reduced due to differences in the development and morphology of the acromion, the presence of anterior acromial spurs and inferior
It can also cause pain and discomfort in the shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or the back. Usually angina is caused by coronary heart disease (CHD). Depending on the type of angina one has, knowing the many factors that can trigger an angina attack is very important. There are four different types of angina pectoris: Stable Angina Unstable Angina Variant (Prinzmetal) Angina Microvascular (MVD) Angina Stable angina is chest pain in medical terms. This type of chest pain occurs when one or more of the coronary arteries are either blocked or narrowed.
The muscles in the butt (buttocks) are called gluteal muscles. A gluteal strain happens when the gluteal muscles are overstretched or torn. A tear can be partial or complete. A gluteal strain can cause pain and stiffness in your buttocks, legs, and lower back. A strain might be referred to as “pulling a muscle.” The severity of a muscle strain is rated in degrees.
Shoulder separation is a profound medical injury. Often, the general public uses shoulder separation and shoulder dislocation synonymously when the two are entirely different injuries involving the shoulder. Shoulder separation involves loss of articulation of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint between the acromion and distal end of the clavicle (“Acromioclavicular separation”, n.d.). AC joint separation results in a disruption of the acromioclavicular ligament within the shoulder and, occasionally, a deformity of the coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments (Corley & Freeman, 2003, p. 4). Laterally, and in less severe cases, AC joint separation is confined to that of the acromioclavicular ligament including “ligamentous strain….or rupture of the acromioclavicular ligament” (Corley & Freeman, 2003, p.4).
CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW 1.1 Background Carpal tunnel syndrome is the entrapment of median nerve at the wrist. The median nerve originates from the brachial plexus at level of C5 to T1. It passes down through the midline of the arm in front of the elbow joint supplying muscles of the forearm continuing to the hand supplying the front of the thumb, the two first fingers and the lateral half of the third finger (Elsevier 2001). The symptoms in carpal tunnel syndrome include numbness, tingling, burning sensation, loss of grip strength and pain. Symptoms are more severe at night provoked by repetitive vigorous activity and prolonged wrist positioning (Ablove & Ablove 2009).