Steve Biko Research Paper

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The month of September marks the 40th commemoration of the passing of Steve Bantu Biko. The research will be based on the life story of the Black Consciousness leader. The research will explore the biography of Steve Biko, how he started the Black Consciousness movement, the expression of Black Consciousness, the impact of philosophy of BCM on student movements, the link between BCM, Steve Biko and South African politics and finally the aims of the BCM.


Bantu Stephen Biko was born in 18 December 1946 and passed on the 12 September 1977. He was a South African anti-apartheid activist. He became an African nationalist and African socialist. Steve Biko was the leader and founder of Black consciousness movement
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He went to study at University of Natal doing medicine in 1966. While at the university of Natal, he joined the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS). Steve Biko was not happy that the NUSAS was mostly dominated by whites and felt that it would have been better if it was led by the blacks since they were the ones mostly affected by apartheid. Steve Biko was inspired by reading the writings of Black Power Movement in USA. He said that blacks have been oppressed for over 300 years and they had developed an inferiority complex. Inferiority complex is defined as the lack of self-worth, a doubt and uncertainty about oneself.
Steve Biko felt that whites could not understand the black experience and that blacks should have their own liberation organization. Then he established the South African Students’ Organisation in 1972. Membership was only for blacks but also included Coloureds and Indians.
Steve Biko was banned in 1973, At the end of his third year at university he was expelled for his political activities. He was under constant surveillance and harassment from the security police. His house was regularly raided under the 24 hour police
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He was transported to Pretoria when he was in great pain and he died in the police cell. The government imposed a clampdown and arrested and banned members of the BCM AND SASO. After Steve Biko’s death, the black man was already conscious and that did not prevent Africans from backing down. Black Consciousness became very popular. Steve Biko’s death attracted world attention and strengthened the pressure for pressure for international sanctions against South Africa.

Steve Biko advocated black pride and values. The term ‘black’ was for all who were discriminated by whites. Steve Biko strongly believed in uniting and strengthening black people to overcome feelings of inferiority. Black people should help each other and not expect whites to help them through self-help projects which included Zanempilo Community Health clinic near King William’s Town. The Health clinic was the first black owned running clinic in South Africa.
These were the aims:
 Develop self-confidence and
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