HIV Case Study

1260 Words6 Pages
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become one of the most troublesome public health issues in the world. Its mere occurrence has developed stigma and discrimination which have been identified as the major obstacles in the way of dealing effective responses to people living with HIV. A disadvantage stemming from stigma goes beyond what are often understood as discriminatory actions and expressions like social rejection, intolerance, avoidance, discrimination, stereotyping and violence (Parker & Aggleton, 2003).
Stigma is identified as an important factor that affects the quality of life of people living with human immunodeficiency virus. Negative attitudes affect people living with HIV (PLHIV)
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Extra standard precautions like wearing double gloves while doing intravenous cannula insertion or inserting foley catheter are sometimes observed among healthcare professionals. Inadvertent comments about the patient’s possible sexual practice are sometimes noted. With this, the researcher intends to explore other discriminatory practices that currently exist which are more culture specific and to know the level of stigma within the area. It is for this reason that the study will be conducted to further identify corrective actions or measures through research-based policy formulation which aims to minimize or eliminate discrimination and stigmatization among patients with HIV.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms the immune system by destroying the white blood cells that fight infection. This puts the person at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. However, not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with an infected person. It may also be acquired by sharing drug needles or through contact with the blood of an infected person.

Stigma and
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S&D in the context of HIV/AID is unique when compared to other infectious and communicable diseases. It tends to create a “hidden epidemic” of the disease based on socially-shared ignorance, fear, misinformation, and denial. S&D lead to identity crises, isolation, loneliness, low self-esteem and lack of interest in containing HIV-AIDS. It also leads to lack of motivation to practice prevention. Fear of S&D limits the efficacy of HIV-testing programs because it prevents individuals from taking an HIV test and leads to reduced care seeking
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