Trait leadership developed from leadership research which focused primarily on finding a group of heritable attributes that differentiated leaders from nonleaders. leader viability refers to the measure of impact a leader has on individual or gathering execution, followers fulfillment, and general effectiveness. Numerous researchers have contended that initiative is one of a kind to just a select number of people and that these people have certain unchanging attributes that can 't be produced. But the limitation of the trait theory is that is can not be used in all the situations. Leadership does not reside in the person, and it usually requires examining the whole situation, thus a person who is good leader in one situation can be a bad leader in some other situation.
The problem: How do you know the great people when you see them? rules for smart hiring (PETER CARBONARA). Sackett and Walmsley used a well-known model for measuring personality known as the Big Five as the theoretical basis for their study. In the Big Five model, an individual’s personality can be described by using five personality traits: conscientiousness, agreeableness, emotional stability, extraversion, and openness to experience. The researchers analyzed a large set of data on job interviews to find out which personality traits companies look for when they’re hiring.
2.3.2 Big Five Over the years, trait theorists have devised a number of ways to measure personality, each involving a differing number of traits or factors. Trait psychologists have shown that five traits or factors i.e. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness appear repeatedly in different research studies. These traits or factors are known as “Five Robust Factors,” or “The Big Five,” they are: a. Neuroticism: The first main personality trait is Neuroticism. It can be described as the tendency to experience negative emotions, notably anxiety, depression, and anger.
Theories Trait The trait theory states that leaders have certain innate traits that enable them to lead, such as assertiveness, dependability, persistence and adaptability. ("Trait Theory", 2017) Behavioural Behavioural theories of leadership focus on the study of specific behaviours of a leader. For theorists, behaviour is the best predictor of his leadership influences and as a result, is the best determinant of leadership success. ("Behavioural Theories of Leadership", 2017) Contingency Contingency theories are that there is no one leadership style and that the nature of those being led, the make-up of the leader and the tasks facing a group are different and ever evolving. ("Contingency Theories", 2017) Reflections Trait Leadership
Personality is a major study in the topics of psychology ; this important branch in psychology Is called personality psychology , and the psychologist tries to understand the thoughts , the emotions, the psychological reactions , and at the end they try to predict the human behavior , and this could be reversed , so they can conclude the other three by studying the human behavior very well . each individual’s personality is characterized by these four elements . The study of personality has a very old history ; it goes back to the Hippocrates when they recorded the first known model of personalities discovered by Galen . this theory was depending on four humors they are: blood , mucus, black bile and yellow bile . The personality in this model was highly related to the human body until the first noted physiologist Wilhelm Wundt who cleared the theory by the clear differentiation he made between the human body and the personality in the late 19th or the early 20th century .
Cattell defines traits as a “relatively permanent reaction tendencies that are the basic structural units of the personality” (as cited in Schultz and Schultz, 2013). In other word, the combination of these traits could develop individual personality. There are several theories used to explain the individual personality and the most common one that the researcher chooses in this study is The Five Factor Model of Personality. The Five Factor Model of Personality were includes the extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness and agreeableness to experience as the factors that affect personality. Personality of an individual is an important element that determines some aspects of behavior and it would also have an impact towards their thought, emotions and respond to others.
Mount and Barrick (1995) mentioned that it appears that many personality psychologists have reached a consensus that five personality constructs, referred to as the Big Five, are necessary and sufficient to describe the basic dimensions of normal personality. This study prefers to use the Big Five Model because it widely used to measure personality. According to Paunonen and Ashton (2001), the Big Five personality dimensions of neuroticism, extroversion, agreeableness, openness to experience and Conscientious have been studied extensively and have been associated with a variety of work attitudes and behavior. These five personality dimensions are broad dimensions that are theorized to subsume most narrowly focused personality traits. The breadth of these dimensions is a benefit in that it distils a large number of personality traits into a parsimonious set of dimensions for use in research.
It does not explain all of human personality. Some psychologists have dissented the big five theory because they feel that it neglects the other domains of personality such as religiosity, manipulative-ness, thrift-ness, conservativeness, snobby-ness, sense of humour, risk taking. It has also been referred to as ‘a psychology of the stranger’ (Dan P. McAdams- 1995) because they refer to traits that anyone can easily observe in a stranger and the more personal and privately held traits have been excluded or ignored. Correlations have been found between some of these variables and the Big Five, such as the inverse relationship between political conservatism and Openness (McCrae, 1996). Also, inconsistencies have been identified between traits such as conscientiousness and emotional stability have been associated with better performance, however, conscientiousness has been found out to be a better predictor of work performance than emotional stability in a person.
Personality is defined as “consistent behavior patterns and interpersonal process originating within individual” (Burger). At the ancient period Hippocrates- 400BC, Plato-, Theophrastus explained about personality types. The psychodynamic perspective, the neo- psychoanalytic perspective, the behaviorist perspective, type theories of personality, the humanistic perspective, biological approach and the trait theories are the major perspectives using in personality. Sigmund Freud, the father of psychology was the first psychologist, who proposed theories about the nature of the personality (psychoanalysis). Freud was an Austrian neurologist who was born on the 6th of May 1856 to Jewish parents in Moravia.