Pre-existing beliefs of ethnic minorities from the media, police sub-culture or other micro-level influences mean that ethnic minorities are more likely to be stopped by the police than white people in an occupational culture where targeting is encouraged (see Cashmore, 2001; Bowling et al, 2008). Such targeting mandates are guided by discretion and are likely to become entrenched in the structural policies of the police. It is in such a situation that institutional racism finds its expression. Oakley (1999, p.290) defines the term as ‘the way institutions or organizations may systematically treat, or tend to treat, people differently in respect of "race"’. When such patterns of ill-treatment are repeated continuously, they take on a ‘rule-like status’ and cannot be easily disrupted (see Haney-Lopez 2000, p. 1723).
“America’s Unjust Sex Laws” is an editorial published in the Economist that argues that America’s laws for sex offenders is too stringent. The author makes tenacious arguments that gets the reader thinking, however most of the arguments that were made I contest with. “America’s Unjust Sex Laws” argues that the sex offender laws in America are too harsh. It begins by discussing “Megan’s Laws” and the Adam Walsh Act of 2006 to describe the current sex offender laws. The author then goes on to discuss how large the sex-offender registry is in order to support their first point that harsh penalties shouldn’t be imposed for minor crimes.
In the article, “Feds fault San Francisco police for violence against minorities and recommend 272 reforms”, James Queally and Joe Mozingo addresses the abusive mentality police have with their authority. They imply the behavior of police in some cases isn’t appropriate for someone who is suppose to serve and protect. They include LAPD incidents where Investigation of police are said to use racial slurs through communication of text amongst themselves when referring to Blacks, Latinos and people of middle eastern descent. Ultimately what Queally and Mozingo are trying to get at is that law enforcement abuse their power and degrade their reputation, and should be civil and not be dishonorable by being racially
Michele Alexander has stated that the marginalization, stigmatization, and the discrimination of people of color who constitutes to the new racial caste is not due to them being black, but rather it is the impact of falling into a “non-racialized “ criminal justice system at the epicenter of what is known is mass incarceration. The mass incarceration of the minorities and more so those involved in non-violent drug offenses and the disproportionate application of capital punishments for those killing whites and other disparities in sentencing all point to a legal system that still treat the minorities more harshly when compared to the whites. At one time, Stevenson went to prison, and he was forced to go back to his car to show that he was indeed an attorney. The correction department officers wanted to strip search him and wanted him to sign a book that he was visiting the prison. Contrastingly, attorneys are not supposed to sign the book.
With the bar for execution being that the defendant needed to be shown to be a danger to society the testimony of the psychologist stating that a person 's race is a deciding factor in predicting future violent acts clearly brings the question of race into the supreme court. The appeal states “the latent association of African Americans with violence continues to distort perceptions of reality and result in racially biased assessments—and the risk of such bias is especially acute in death penalty proceedings. The Constitution, however, forbids racial stereotypes from affecting the administration of justice, expressly
Second problem with his argument is that it is unjustified. For example the law ‘Stop and Frisk’ “Judge Rules NYPD Stop and Frisk Practices Unconstitutional, Racially Discriminatory. August 12, 2013, New York – In a landmark decision, a federal court found the New York City Police Department 's highly controversial stop-and-frisk practices unconstitutional. Judge Shira Scheindlin found the NYPD’s practices to violate New Yorkers’ Fourth Amendment rights to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures and also found that the practices were racially discriminatory in violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.” sited from https://ccrjustice.org. In Raza vs City of New York the NYPD used dragnet surveillance which
As details of a key compromise measure that did not meet the intended goals became evident, the same groups who had earlier supported the FSA, were now criticizing it. The new law only reduces, but does not eliminate, the sentencing disparity that appears to be directed towards those of the African American community. The criticisms are centered at too many of the low-level drug dealers are being sentenced and incarcerated by the federal criminal justice system (Reid 2012). During this time of accusations by former supporters, the bipartisan cooperation, who were key to the passage of the FSA, created an historic political event. To demonstrate their frustrations they used intense partisan wrangling for a large range of different political issues upon Capitol Hill, and dominated the debate and stymied the proceedings (Gertsman
Racial profiling can cause multiple problems. Several law enforcement agencies have gone through expensive litigation over civil rights concerns. Police-citizen relations in those communities have been strained, making policing all the more challenging. Most importantly, racial profiling is unlikely to be an effective policing strategy as criminals can simply shift their activities outside the profile (e.g., if racial profiling begins with police stopping black males in their teens and twenties. The "cumulative impact of racial discrimination accounts for the special, way that blacks have of looking at and evaluating" their experiences in public encounters (Feagin, 1991:115).
Proponents believe they when these specific races are being discriminated on media they should be more strict and have consequences for their actions but opponents believe when the public is being discriminated on media, it’s to show that these people are not great for the public, they might even include recent facts about how countries are being destroyed and there are killings by these specific race. I argue that racial discrimination on the media should be addressed more than it already is. I think this because hearing horrible news can cause poor mental and physical health. (“Trump is a Textbook Racist” - Jay A. Pearson) Minority races are still shown more negatively in media than white people. (“Disrupting Implicit Racial Bias and Other Forms of Discrimination to Improve Access Achievement, and Wellness for Students of Color” - David J. Johns) Also there are videos on media, about people getting verbally abused especially races that are constantly attacked.
African Americans are criminalized and targeted because of their skin color, and it is not fair. This argument connects to the theory of Law in the Book vs. Law in Action, and relates to how this type of discrimination from the law affects society. In particular, the way the Law is written in codes, statutes, judicial opinions that supposedly support the righteousness of justice, is a far cry from the way the Law actually operates. Despite substantial progress in recent years, racial discrimination remains a significant problem in the United States. I will prove this argument with the help of various peer-reviewed articles, and non-scholarly article that examine this unequal behavior.
Being out of place is often a reason for suspicion. According to An Analysis of the NYPD 's stop and frisk policy in the context of the claim of racial bias by Andrew Gelman, Jeffrey Fagan, and Alex Kiss, “Racial incongruity stops are most prominent in racially homogenous areas” (18). Black and Hispanics represented 51% and 33% of the stops. According to An Analysis of the NYPD 's stop and frisk policy in the context of the claim of racial bias by Andrew Gelman, Jeffrey Fagan, Alex Kiss, " Black and Hispanics represent only 26% and 24% of New York population"(19) Black and Hispanics were stopped more often
Since both the frisk and search was not reasonable or lawful, under the Fourth Amendment, this would be considered a violation and such evidence seized from Christina should be suppressed. The danger that would result if the court decided against my arguments is that there would be more police brutality. Although the concern that correlates with public safety is that there would be high crime rates, we need to find a way to balance public safety and an individual’s freedom. More often than not in today’s society, police officers are over using their power and often get away with it. As a result, people of color or Latinos are often the ones who suffer, since they are the targets.
Do you think judges and juries are biased toward the white population? Three articles that cover this topic are “How the Judicial System Works” by Jacob Silverman, “A Defense of the Jury System” by Thomas M. Ross, and “Six Million Trayvons: How the George Zimmerman Mindset Has Rigged the Justice System Against Young Black Men” by Judd Legum. After reading all three articles, it is clear that America’s justice system is unfair, and juries are biased toward white people. The first reason why the jury is corrupt is because juries can be biased. In Thomas M. Ross’s article, he states, “Juries are criticized for deciding on cases based on prejudice and emotion rather than relying on the evidence and the law.” Juries might have sympathy or hatred for one of the victims based on previous experiences that can be related to the circumstance.
Felon disenfranchisement is not only unconstitutional but also further institutionalizes racism. For example, in communities consisting of minorities like African Americans and Hispanics felony disenfranchisement unlawfully create a disadvantage for freedom of speech. As stated by Eric H. Holder, JD a US Attorney General “although well over a century has passed since post-Reconstruction …the impact of felony disenfranchisement on modern communities of color remains both disproportionate and unacceptable.” The act of taking away someone’s right to vote notably mirrors the act of forbidding African Americans to vote during the post-Reconstruction Era. Holder refers to the fact that taking away the right to vote essentially withdraws any opinions that minorities