Discrimination: One or more group of people (separated by ethnic, racial, sexual orientation, gender, age, physical ability, religious, or other cultural differences) being systematically mistreated by those with social/fiscal power (Martin & Nakayama, 2014, 62) Discrimination can be instituted by entire communities, social and political establishments, or on an individual basis. b. Ethnocentrism often motivates prejudice, in that one who believes their culture is superior might take steps to enforce that believe and oppress those of inferior cultures. Ethnocentrism can also be reinforced by stereotypes, because if one subscribes to stereotypes that others are lazier, stupider, less capable, or more negative than themselves then they might agree that they are inherently better. However, stereotypes can exist in an individual’s mind without them subscribing to ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism is inherently accompanied by prejudice because the act of believing other cultures to be inferior is an unfounded negative response.
Stereotypes of East Asians, including the model minority stereotype, have a complex history and lead to negative effects both in education,socially, and in the workplace. The stereotype that affects most Asian Americans has been coined as the model minority stereotype. It is agreed that the model
Facts about Colorism and African-American Women Colorism is a type of prejudice or discrimination in which individuals are dealt with diversely in light of the social implications joined to skin color. Colorism is not a synonym of racism. Race relies on upon various components; thusly, racial classification does not exclusively depend on skin color. Skin color is stand out system used to dole out people to a racial class, however race is the arrangement of convictions and suppositions relegated to that classification. Racism is the reliance of social status on the social importance connected to race; colorism is the reliance of social status on skin color alone (Hochschild and Weaver, 2007).
Moreover, work styles and value diversity can increase potential conflict within the team and thus, decrease team performance (Jehn et al., 1999). On the contrary, Mannix and Neale (2005) found that surface-level social- category differences tend to be more likely to have negative effects on the ability of groups to function effectively while deep-level diversity generated positive effects with respect to team effectiveness. In Vietnamese context, this finding also reinforced the fact that employees, who come from the similar cultural background, are likely to be more effective in teams with each other than those who come from different cultural
In the meantime, these stereotypes turn individuals into a mass of others who lack separate personalities (p.4). A stereotype is a general view that can be received about particular sorts of people or certain methods for doing things. Through stereotypes, people make general judgments about others without knowing them. The most common stereotypes are racial, sexual, and gender remarks. For example, in many cultures men are considered to be stronger, smarter and more successful than women.
Low quality LMX members are seen as “hired hands” with lower status and high LMX members as high status indicated by terms such as “cadre”. (Dansereau et al., 1975). The issue often raised is that whether leaders should or should not differentiate among their members. Different views have been expressed for and against the contention. Severe differentiation may lead members likely to become demotivated and developing generalized reciprocity may lead to demotivation and performance may suffer.
There’s a myth about Asian Americans, that generalizes them into one group. People create false images of us through stereotypes. These stereotypes have been manifested in books, movies, and literature, but they have repercussions for Asian Americans in society. We are often treated as foreigners, people leading us to believe that we don’t belong in American society, and that we have no purpose being here. Stereotypes are natural things that people will talk about.
For example, acculturating groups and individuals may often feel like they are being discriminated against by the members of the dominant culture (Berry, 1995, 2005). Such perceived discrimination is one of the predictors of acculturative stress (Torres, Driscoll, & Voell, 2012), as well as one of the predictors of social anxiety among different ethnic groups (Levine et al., 2014). In fact, Fang et al. (2016) found that those who reported higher levels of social anxiety also reported higher levels of perceived discrimination. It is plausible that perceived discrimination and other social difficulties first led to acculturative stress, which in turn could explain the higher levels of social anxiety among these individuals.
Ethnocentrism is the belief of one’s personal ethnic group to be far more superior than the others. It can be developed based from one’s cultural background, ethnicity or religious differences. Very often, an Ethnocentric person judges an individuals based on their ethnic group especially their religions, customs, languages and behaviors. According to Berry & Kalin (1995), “Ethnocentrism is viewed as lacking acceptance of cultural diversity and intolerance for outgroups”. A perceptions from an Ethnocentric very often lead to divisions amongst members of the society, foster negative judgments, prejudice and racism.
The author points out that people tend to have higher expectations, cooperate better and trust more attractive individuals than the less attractive ones. It was also pointed out that one’s attractiveness affects their chances of being hired for the job. This is due to social desirability which is the level of how approachable one individual is and social utility which refers to their success or failure rate in the workplace. She argued that while the Halo effect had a significant role in this biasedness in the workplace where physically attractive individuals are perceived to possess socially desirable traits that are beneficial in the workplace, it is not the only factor present in hiring decisions. Employees who displayed similarities in race, attitude and personality with the employers stood higher chances of being employed for the job.