Ethnocentrism is a major reason for divisions amongst members of different races and religious groups in a society. In international relations, ethnocentrism creates conflicts and inhibits resolution of conflicts. There are extreme forms of ethnocentrism that pose serious social problems such as racism, colonialism and ethnic cleaning. It is difficult to completely prevent ethnocentrism but it can be decreased by raising awareness of it. In general, ethnocentrism has been described as an individual psychological disposition which has both positive and negative outcomes.
Wang, Leu and Shoda (2011) hypothesized that while many individuals may believe that racial microaggressions are harmless, in reality, racial microaggressions could have deleterious effects on the emotional well-being of racial minorities. The authors hypothesized that the potential emotional “sting” of seemingly innocuous microaggressions is proportional to the strength of such a belief. In addition, the authors hypothesized that appraisals of these microaggressions would be associated with externalizing emotions. To assess the issue, the authors conducted two studies. In the first study, the authors conducted a focus group with nine self-identified Asian American college students (78% women; ages 20 to 26).
Discrimination: Discrimination refers to unjustifiable negative behaviour towards a group or its members where behaviour is adjudged to include actions towards, and judgments/ decisions about, group members. Correll et al. (2010) defines discrimination as “behaviour directed towards category members that is consequential for their outcomes and that is directed towards them not because of any particular deservingness or reciprocity, but simply because they happen to be members of that category.” The term “discriminate” derived from the Latin word “discrimire” which means “to distinguish”. Social psychologists try to distinguish discrimination from stereotypes and prejudices. Stereotypes are strong beliefs about a group and its personal attributes.
As stated above, even if Asian Americans have the intelligence advantage compared to other American, they still face many other racial stereotypes. It described the typical stereotype that other view toward Asian American as submissive and that Asian Americans are culturally as physically unaggressive, political docile, and very accommodating. It also presents that because of the myth of model minority ideology that other has toward Asian American, it put them in a higher social hierarchy compared to other racial minorities groups (“Racial Violence”, 1993). Which also in Triangulation of Asian American, written by Claire Jean Kim, she also argues that this idea of putting Asian American in a triangulation between the White American and other minorities groups. However, she stated by using this ideology it enforcing the White Americans to dominance Asian Americans because they think that Asian Americans are all submissive and are too eager to follow the white directives (Kim,
The problem with In-Group bias is that favoring and special treatment we give to tjose within our groups, is unfair-because we are not giving equal treatment to those belonging to other groups, whom we classify as 'out group'. Consequently , it is an evident reason for discrimination,even being more problematic and dangerous than outright hosility and prejudice. Human beings prefer those who are similar and familar.We feel a 'oneness' with those who we share norms,customs,culture-etc;.And the in-group bias we do does lead to discrimination.We give preferences,leniency,special treament ,perks and so much more.Examples being; job hiring, promotions,preferances,gradings and the like.Henri Tajfel (Bitish Social Psychologist) had even conductednan expirment to uncover and display the honest patterns behind in-group bias.In short the expirment -school boys were shown a series of slides with varying number of dots.Said boys were assigned as 'underestamitors' and 'over-estamitors' were than given another task to work on-alone.Here,they could give the other points.The boys ended up assigning
Stereotypes about minorities can spark from their presence’s perceived invasiveness to the stability that society values in this theory, and lead to racial profiling. Omi and Winant believe a system of racial meanings and stereotypes is prominent in the culture of the United States, and these racial meanings are formed from ideologies that establish and maintain a color line (Omi and Winant 5). This color line is a key concept the dominant white culture values that systemizes inequality and encourages stability in the Functionalist Perspective. Therefore, when the social order of society is challenged by new cultures and assimilation is unsuccessful, prejudice is formed. A large contributor to this prejudice is the media, which has been infamous in spreading images of racial minorities which establish their general appearances and behaviors (Omi and Winant 5).
This essay will focus on to what extent is the concept of interculturalism different from multiculturalism. The focus will be primarily on what both terms actually stand for and how they are interpreted by society, while highlighting the differences between both terms and their polices. There will be examples of bad implementation of policies with reference to societies which show evidence of the clear disadvantages incorrect practice can bestow on an area. The focal point will also heavily weigh in on the benefits of interculturalism on feminism. ‘The term “multicultural” has come to define both a society that is particularly diverse, usually as a
Culture and experience has produced stereotypes, and it is known that these stereotypes has contents (Schneider, 1991, 1996, 2005). These contents refer to gender, age and race (2005). Furthermore these contents affect the behavior of people and in other words, people begin to act differently upon knowing the age, race and gender of an individual (2005). Interactions with other people could also identify the existence of stereotypes and it is believed that stereotypes are made up of positive and negative traits of an individual or a group, howsoever stereotypes is mostly made up of negative traits (2005). Although many of these stereotypes are said to be brief and it does not last too long (2005).
Secondly, ethnocentrism accepts ones group’s norms, values and behaviours seen as moral, good and proper where as those of groups that differ from one’s own often are seen as immoral, wrong, and improper. Thirdly, it leads people to exaggerate group differences and ethnocentric cultural groups see themselves as superior to other groups, which are treated, as inferior. It also brings about negative affective reactions to out groups such as distrust, hostility, and contempt. Furthermore, it impedes communication and blocks the exchange of ideas and skills among peoples. Gudykunst (2003) imply that ethnocentrism is lower in countries with strong belief in tolerance of others, harmony with others than in countries with a sense of cultural superiority, respect for
1. Self esteem is simply put the thoughts and feelings we have about ourselves. When we think poorly about ourselves our self esteem will also be worse, however when we think positively about us as people our self esteem rises. Beebe (2008) wrote, “Closely related to your self- concept, or your description of who you are, is your self- esteem, your evaluation of who you are. Non verbal inner speech or self talk is a major influence of self esteem.
In explaining the accounts for the racial differences, the paper will utilize the group-position model of race relations. The model is an element of conflict theory that views racial personality not just as a consequence of negative perception between different racial groups but as a reflection of the competition and conflict between the same groups over power and status. The model roots its argument in a collective group position with the group interest being the driving force that underlie the relation between the groups. Most of the group interest are attached to the beliefs of the members that they have claims to the scarce resources. The attitude of the dominant group towards other racial groups are positional: a term that defines the shape of the sense of the supremacy of the groups over other minority groups.