Introduction The social work profession, was based on values that contributed not only to its own professional development and to helping different service user groups, but also to the development of societies in general. Describe how theories and research (EBP process) inform our professional knowledgebase. A clear theoretical perspective guide and influences social work practice in five key areas: observation, description, explanation, prediction and intervention. Observation tells what to see, what to look out for. Description provides a conceptual vocabulary and framework within which observations can be arranged and organized.
3) Was the agreement durable? 4) Did the collaborative process lead to a great substantial agreement? 5) Did the collaborative process enhance the capacity of influenced stakeholders to solve problems and resolve conflicts? 6) Did the collaborative process facilitate the achievement of shared values that successively make other problems easier to solve and reduce conflict? In this context, any evaluation of a collaborative governance approach will require taking into account both process and outcome levels.
In the recent business world, various strategies re being employed by companies with various aims including that of increasing its competitiveness, increasing the profits as well as increasing its working environment among others. Most companies have engaged in the employment of corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a strategy of increasing their benefits which in return are expected to give the company using it a competitive advantage. Corporate social responsibility is a business practice that comprises of initiatives aimed at benefiting the society and can include various tactics including those of implementing business operations that are greener as well as giving away a portion of the proceedings held by a company to charity. This social
Resources commitment are essential for reverse logistics capabilities. Information as a sources of reverse logistics becomes essential because investing in information technology can help retailers develop a sustainable competitive advantages. Information systems (IS) capabilities are recognized as playing an important role in managing RL processes. The fourth hypotheses is contractual arrangements are positively related to reverse logistics capabilities. Contractual arrangements are part of a socialization process with other channel members that involves arranging relationships that intentionally promote goal consistency.
The sustainable management is reflected by the sustainable leadership at the individual level and organizational level. This will also influence the external strategic planning of the organization. Figure 5. Multilevel management leadership model
Theoretical Framework The literature reviewed describes the development and significance of the concepts of organizational justice, organizational trust and organizational commitment, and how these concepts link with each other. The institutional rational choice theory is discussed in detail below to develop an understanding of their link with the delineated variables. Institutional Rational Choice Theory The conceptual model developed on the basis of reviewed literature establishes that if employees perceive the prevalence of justice in their organizations, this would result in their increased level of trust in the organization, which then would consequently lead to increased organizational commitment among employees in public sector organizations.
Introduction Good governance has gained significant attention in the world especially in the last decade. In recent years good governance has attracted the attention of economists, political scientists, Lawyers, Politicians national institutions and institutions of world bank and IMF. Since some empirical and theoretical controversies have been found on the concept and importance of good governance but can be considered as a prerequisite for economic growth and peaceful development. According to Kaufmann and Kraay(2002), governance can also be seen as the instrument of the effectiveness of a society’s institutions. If the institutions are appropriate and effective, the outcome should be good governance (Duncan 2003).
1.3 Marketing environment Marketing environment consists of internal factors, performance factors and external factors affecting marketing function, which is an ability of an organisation to develop and maintain the customer relations. Macro environment includes the external factors which can be understood with the help of Pestle. Micro environment includes the internal factors affecting role and responsibilities of marketing, which includes organisation’s internal resources. Performance factors are the forces influencing the role and responsibility of marketing function, which can be explained with the help of Porter’s five forces analysis. Following is the graphical illustration of the same (Baines, et al., 2013): Fig.
The second characteristic of program evaluation according to authors is its orientation towards measuring program effectiveness. As social programs are meant to benefit a population, evaluations must be able to focus on the appropriate aspects. Rossi et al. (2004) enumerated such aspects as the following: (1) the need for the program, (2) the program's design, (3) its implementation and service delivery, (4) its impacts, or outcome, and (5) its efficiency. Third, program evaluation must be able to consider political and environmental context.
There is mounting recognition among public administrator and scholars that capacity building in ICT is at the center of administration of public. Similarity is the evidence to the human resource management which is plays more strategies role in public service because human resource management is powerfully impact on the policies, practices, and system influence for both employee and member of public administration, attitudes and human behavior in adopting and utilizing ICT in public service. ICT is evident that human capital, skills, and experience are essential in putting ICT to good utilization. The question is that how those human capacities should be developed and the important of ensuring the sustainability. ICT decide