“Through problem solving and exploring, students take on an active role to create, integrate, and generalize knowledge. Instead of receiving information through lecture or drill and practice, students create broader application for skills through activities that encourage critical thinking, experiences and problem solving.” (Bicknell- Holmes & Hoffman, 2000). “The roles of students and teacher changes in the discovery learning however it is still difficult for many teachers to accept” (Hooks, 1994). Dewey (1997) describes learning as “actions where knowledge and ideas materialize as learners interact with other learners in an environment by doing this they build their knowledge by drawing meaningful conclusions from past experiences that is important.” According to Berding (2000) “children were motivated to actively learn and that education only served to make more learning possible. He believed that mental development was achieved through social interaction.” Piaget (1973) postulated that “from discovery comes understanding and without understanding there will be no creativity hence the individual is caught in
There is collaboration, communication and equal interaction amongst students and teacher instead of teacher exclusivity. The pros are that students learn important communicative and collaborate skills, directing their own learning, asking questions, independent task completion and are more motivated in the learning activities. The cons are that classrooms might often be noisy, difficulty in managing all student’s activities at once, important information or facts may be missed due to instruction not being delivered at once and preference to work alone for some students. The curriculum The central goal for instructors is to develop a curriculum that develops instructional materials and activities that promotes the maximum growth within the learners. Multidimensional area of investigation that allows the students to explore, discover and make their own choices.
Constructivism theory also can define as generative learning that creates a meaning from what the students learn. It means that constructivism theory is a collaborate of learning, teaching and knowledge, which is stressed on cognitive aspect that the students can learn by themselves and understand what they learn. As a result, the students can find and change the complicated information that they got to be simple information and they can understand it. Constructivism is a good method for students because it can build on their knowledge and experience, helps students in critical thinking and improve students’ writing skill. Constructivism theory can help students to build their own knowledge.
USE QUESTIONING AND FEEDBACK TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS UNIT 2, 6.4 LITERATURE REVIEW Harlen explains that there are two main reasons for assessing students: to help their learning and to report on what they have learned. He argues that researchers typically discuss these reasons as different purposes for assessment and “mistakenly as different kinds of assessments that are somehow opposed to one another” (Harlen, 2007b). How can they achieve the aim? When learners know and understand these principles, the quality of learning will improve. Sharing this information with my learners will promote ownership of the learning aims and a sense of shared responsibility between me the teacher and learner to achieve those aims.
SELF ASSESSMENT AUDIT Brown and Glasner (2003, p. 1-12) discuss the fact that assessment methods and requirements probably influence how and what students learn more than any other single factor. They state that through building up evaluative skills and self-assessing, students can become more effective learners. They further insist that: "Self assessment is inevitable when students are reviewing their own development and performance, when there is a reflective component, when critical incident accounts are used, and anywhere where progression and added value are discussed." An important, and essential, area of the self-assessment process is personal and professional skills. Opportunities to learn and develop are everywhere; so how can we tell if we are gaining knowledge, skills and abilities from what we are seeing, hearing and experiencing?
one needs to make creativity part of your daily routine rather than an occasional activity. • Look at everything you do with a critical eye and consider how your lessons could be made more motivating, productive and interesting for your learners. The passion to ignite creativity in students. • In seeking to become a smart creative teacher one needs widen your understanding of your own creativity, and the imaginative approaches and repertoire of engaging activities that you can employ in order to develop the children’s capacity for original ideas and action. • Another strategy is the frequent use of open-ended questions, the promotion of speculation and the generation of possibilities, teachers who reflect back questions asked of them will be developing a more generative and open stance in children.
Concept mapping is a technique of visually representing the structure of information, concepts, and their relationship. They are used as tools for meaningful learning, assessment, instructional planning and finding out the alternative concepts or misconceptions held by the learners (Enger, 1998; Nesbit & Adesope, 2006; Novak & Cańas, 2006a, 2006b; Novak, 1980). Concept mapping serves as a strategy to help learners organise their cognitive frameworks into more powerful integrated patterns (Kinchin, 2005). This teaching method involves class discussion, practical demonstration and concept mapping activities. During such lessons, concepts are organized in a hierarchical manner, and are linked to show the relationship between the concepts, thereby making learning meaningful through logical interpretation of individual experiences (Okoye, Momoh, Aigbomian,& Okecha, 2014).
Because all learning is filtered through pre-existing schemata, constructivists suggest that learning is more effective when a student is actively engaged in the learning process rather than attempting to receive knowledge passively. A wide variety of methods claim to be based on constructivist learning theory. Most of these methods rely on some form of guided discovery where the teacher avoids most direct instruction and attempts to lead the student through questions and activities to discover, discuss, appreciate, and verbalize the new
This kind of learning promotes independence within the learner and helps in developing creativity. Therefore, I make sure that I revisit topics to enhance my learner’s knowledge. As Bruner [Ref.2] rightly said that learners use prior experience to fit new information into pre-existing models. Motivation is a very important factor in learning. Learners need to understand the reasons or areas where they can use knowledge and then only they can get themselves involved in thinking.
For HK L2 learner, we can apply deductive grammatical approach as majority approach and introduce inductive approach from time to time such as insert as a little part of the lesson to attract student attention since the approach is switching or use to teach some grammar such as past tense which teacher is confidence that L2 learner able to generate it by only looking at the example. I don’t think we should object one approach over the other, we should put our need on teaching on the first priority and using deductive or inductive grammatical teaching approach as tools to address the need