Strategic Planning In Strategic Plan

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There are many studies emphasize the crucial role of strategic planning which promote fluency (Foster, 1996; Foster & Skehan, 1996; Skehan & Foster, 1997; Yuan & Ellis, 2003). According to the results of the studies of Foster (1996) and Foster and Skehan (1996), the more challenging a task is, the greater fluency the strategic planning fosters. According to the list suggested by Richard and Rodgers (2001), the first two task variables, one way or two way and convergent or divergent are common with the ideas in Long's list. The other variables are related to the way learners work in the task, the outcome number that students are expected to produce, the cognitive skills required to complete the task, the complexity of language use, the concrete…show more content…
The use of vocabulary items, complicated linguistic forms, naturalness and fluency will be enhanced if students are given time for their preparation (Skehan, 1996; Willis, 1996). This is called strategic planning phase. In this strategic planning, students can decide by themselves what to do in the task, or teachers lead them in accuracy, fluency or complexity focus (Ellis, 2003). though teacher guidance is important in notifying students what to concentrate on during preparation (Skehan, 1996), Willis (1996) claims that students tend to perform the task more eagerly when they plan the task by themselves rather than being guided by the…show more content…
Giving students planning time and giving them the chance to use input data which will help them present what they produce easily are two dimensions of task performance that Ellis (2003) proposes. The first dimension involves how time limitation affects task completion. Student given unlimited time for task completion use more accurate and complex structures than those in the control group given limited time. In contrast, students with limited time can develop their fluency due to unplanned language use (Yuan & Ellis, 2003). For the second dimension, the use of input data during task performance is discussed. Having help from the input data means that students use, for example, the picture of what they are talking or the text they have read as background (Ellis, 2003; Prabhu, 1987). In the final part of this phase, some pairs or groups present their oral or written products. Feedback is only given on advantages of the product. The effect of this session can be enhanced if the errors are not corrected publicly (Prabhu,

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