The two main paradigms that are used for describing these are using the objective, scientific-based positivist approach and the subjective, phenomological-based interpretivist approach. Since the positivist approach is grounded on a foundation of empirical testing, it looks largely at hypotheses and determines cause and effect relationships based on largely deductive logic as well as the validity and reliability of the research studies conducted. The interpretivist paradigm uses multiple perspectives of reality since this is based on a contextual interpretation of the issues being examined, where reality is a fluid construct and depends on who is being observed under a particular set of
Every research project provides a link between a paradigm, epistemology, theoretical perspective, and research practice. A paradigm is identified in any school of thought – the integrated worldviews held by researchers and people in general that determine how these individuals perceive and attempt to comprehend truth (Fitzpatrick, Sanders, & Worthen, 2003). Furthermore, a paradigm includes an epistemological belief as well as an ontological belief that, when combined together, govern perceptions and choices made in the pursuit of scientific truth. In practice, individuals’ epistemological beliefs determine how they think knowledge or truth can be comprehended, what problems – if any – are associated with various views of pursuing and presenting knowledge and what role researchers play in its discovery (Robson, 2002). Different epistemologies offer different views of researchers’ relationships with their object of inquiry.
3. Methodology 3.1 Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to outline the methods used in the gathering of data to answer the dissertation question. Limitations of the method, a description of the research tools and why it is being undertaken will be discussed. Research can be defined as “a systematic and organised effort to investigate a problem that needs a solution and encompasses the process of inquiry, investigation, examination and experimentation” (Sekaran 1992, p.4).
Conceptual research is often development and arranging conceptual understandings The composite nature of the project can sometimes make it difficult for all aspects of a research question to be answered by a single method acting . “Mixed method” refers to research in which the researcher collects and analyses data, integrates the finding, and draws inferences using more than one method. 4.1 Evaluate appropriate research methodologies in terms of the research question The purpose of inquiry methodological analysis is to discover answers to questions through the application program of scientific
Qualitative Data Analysis Scholars and analysts have numerous strategies for conducting research. Various methods have different advantages and disadvantages that researchers consider before identifying the most appropriate design. While there are multiple ways of implementing research, quantitative and qualitative methods are arguably the most famous strategies for analysis. This webinar concentrates on qualitative data analysis and sheds light on various aspects including the meaning of qualitative data, the meaning of analysis, the most difficult stages of qualitative research, the major characteristics of analysis process, when data analysis should start and end, the major steps in data analysis and the crucial issues that may
In trying to understand the functioning and the nature of the mind, many theories have put across. In this essay I would like to focus on Dennett’s ‘Intentional Strategy’ as he gives a scientifically informed account of the mind. His approach is focused on the third person observer who ascribes intentions, beliefs and desires of an object or a thing thereby taking a stance. The stance taken helps one to ‘make sense of and predict the behaviour of any creature’ (Heil 1998:156). Then I will whether minds can be defined as a property of intentional system and finally, I will attempt to show that Dennett’s position is that of a reductionist.
Results of this research evaluation are primarily used for policy-making, personnel allocation, resource allocation, and large scale projects. It is concerned with program effectiveness and outcomes. There are stakeholders who may have an interest on how the program operates and politics tends to play a significant role in summative evaluation. Summative evaluation uses an evaluation assessment to help investigators determine if a program has the necessary qualifications. During the assessment, there has to be clear goals, follow and gather information on the program, monitor the program, develop logical flows for the program, and review the program to determine what aspects are working and what are not working with the program.
Commonly, ethical systems are categorized into two major systems. The deontological approaches or normative ethical position which judges an action based on the adherence of the action to certain rules and the teleological approaches which judges primarily based on the consequences of an action (Hare, 1964). The Utilitarianism is assigned to the teleological approaches, as it does not evaluate an action by itself but by it’s
(Source: Lancaster University) A research in management science can be defined as a search for knowledge or as any systematic investigation, to establish facts, developing new theories, solving existing problems; using a scientific method. According to George A. Lundberg, scientific method can be defined as the “method which consists of the systematic observation, classification and the interpretation of the data the main difference
I was particularly struck by the distinction between different modes of delivering curriculum and in particular the contrast between Product and Process methods, in curriculum development. At this point it might be useful to analyse the distinction between these two processes. Neary identifies the Product Model as one that “emphasises plans and intentions” whereas in the Process Model, the emphasis is on the “activities and effects” (O’Neill 2015, p27). In essence therefore the Product Model can be regarded as a more traditional and historically tested method of developing curriculum. The work of John Franklin Bobbitt and Ralph Tyler very much advocate Product curricular designs, maintaining that these designs are centred on the creation of a disciplined and “structured learning environment for students” (O’Neill 2015, p).
In A Viet Cong Memoir, we receive excellent first hands accounts of events that unfolded in Vietnam during the Vietnam War from the author of this autobiography: Truong Nhu Tang. Truong was Vietnamese at heart, growing up in Saigon, but he studied in Paris for a time where he met and learned from the future leader Ho Chi Minh. Truong was able to learn from Ho Chi Minh’s revolutionary ideas and gain a great political perspective of the conflicts arising in Vietnam during the war. His autobiography shows the readers the perspective of the average Vietnamese citizen (especially those involved with the NLF) and the attitudes towards war with the United States. In the book, Truong exclaims that although many people may say the Americans never lost on the battlefield in Vietnam — it is irrelevant.
When making an argument, it is important to make proper claims. In the book, “The Craft of Research” Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams mention two specific types of claims: conceptual claims, and practical claims. A practical claim has to do with assessing and solving a physical problem. Conceptual claims on the other hand, have to do with understanding that there is a problem, rather than convincing them to go out and fix it.