In precipitation process, large volumes of sludge are generated which can present dewatering and disposal problems , as well as re-carbonation of the softened water are needed . Ion-exchange resin have been widely used to remove calcium and magnesium ions due to their many advantages, such as high capacity and fast kinetics [12-14]. However, ion-exchange resins must be regenerated by chemical reagents when they are saturated and the regeneration can cause serious secondary pollution. In large scale, application of resin is expensive . In recent years, various method such as nanofiltration [15, 16], capacitive deionization , electrodialysis , electrochemical treatment  and, adsorption [20, 21] have been widely studied for ions removal from aqueous solution, especially water softening.
Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, which is either synthesized or injested from the environment in bacterial cells.The production of tryptophan is an energy consuming process. So bacteria need to ensure that only when the concentration of tryptophan is low inside cell , it has to produce tryptophan. The trp operon is a repressible system that regulates the biosynthesis of tryptophan. The gene for the repressor is located not near to the promoter,but in a different location.It has an operator which is embedded in the promoter,a leader sequence(trpL) and 5 structural genes(trpE,trpD,trpC,trpB,trpA). Each gene encodes for proteins in the trp synthesis pathway.
Introduction Our world is composed of many bacteria’s’ that can either help or destroy us. Therefore, its’s imperative to learn and study them. The purpose of the lab was to put into action the methods that have been learned in the laboratory to determine our unknown bacteria. Bacteria’s can have different features, shapes, and or arrangements that help microbiologist determined their role in our life (whether they are good or bad for humans). Bacteria can be classified as gram positive or negative (difference in call wall).
The attachment of E.coli on the surfaces of epithelial cells pertaining to urinary tract is achieved throughout several bacterial adhesive proteins. In parallel with biofilm formation of pathogenic E.coli on animate and inanimate surfaces, the secretion of exopolysaccharide occurs. The most important VFs which are found in UPEC strains are recognized as capsule, fimbriae, pili, flagella, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), hemolysins, siderophores and toxins. These factors mediate colonization and invasion of the UPEC in diverse positions (9, 12,
They are capable of surviving an array of intense environmental conditions and can even be known to survive lyophilzation processes. There are two main kinds of viral agents that will infect a product flow i.e. cell line derived and externally introduced. Cell line derived viral agents are as the name suggest are sourced from the production cell line uses as the product synthesizers. These viruses can be adhered to the surface of the cells or more commonly are genetically encoded within the cell line.
Genetics is the study of genes, heredity and genetic variation in living beings. The topics in Genetics vary as we learn more about genomes and how we are affected by our genes every day. Genetic engineering is the artificial manipulation of the genetic material of the organisms including the creation of novel genetic material. This manipulation occurs to a large extent external to organisms as in test tubes and vitro ( in glass).Genetic engineering is used to make recombinant DNA,to purposefully change nucleotide sequences and to clone DNA. What is the difference between Biochemistry and Molecular Biology?
You may include flowcharts and sketches, if it is helpful. (15 pts) There are three parts of the immune system that consist of the body’s natural barriers, the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response. The skin and mucosal surfaces form barriers against infection. When bacteria enters through a break in the natural barrier of the skin, it is first introduced to antimicrobial peptides under the surface of the skin that is supposed to kill bacteria,
These microscopic organisms include bacteria and archaea. Population evolution in microbial life refers to the change that occurs in the microscopic organism populations over a SC160 Basic Biology Assignment 08 period of time. Evolution of microbial life is used in science and research for researching and studying diseases caused by the evolving microorganisms. This information is used by scientists to research and develop with medications to fight these diseases. Population evolution and microbial life are presented in the following examples.
It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved organisms. The purpose of genetic engineering is to eradicate the world of debilitating diseases. Although this is a noble goal, this branch of science also has many risks. Some people believe that we should care about genetic engineer because they believe genetically modified (GM) foods pose a serious health risk to society. However, the views concerning genet-ically modified food are mixed.
1. Introduction Due to the extensive use of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs), a wide range and different of PhAC residues occurs in the aquatic environment. Their fate is potentially a major issue that is yet to be understood .Extensive use of antibiotics for disease prevention, treatment of microbial infections and promotion of animal and plant growth have led to the frequent detection of different antibiotics and their by products in the environment [2,3]. The antibiotics distribution in the environment can increase the resistance of bacteria and subsequently compromise public health by preventing treatment of infections caused with these bacteria ; and this is one of the major challenges for human and veterinary medicine. one of the most widely used antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine is Ciprofloxacin (CIP), that is a third-generation of Fluor quinlones.