It is very much easier to delay gratification when the stimulus is hidden from view compared to when it is present. We need to learn to void ourselves from both mental and physical temptations. The hot system usually takes charge when there is faulty thinking. We will be able to develop willpower if we learn to create plans that will allow us to succeed even with the presence of temptations. The hot system is likely to take control when we are stressed because we tend to yield to temptations when we are stressed.
This could be called behaviour modification which is someone trying to shape behaviour through reinforcement. For effective learning, the reinforce must immediately follow the response. Punishment which is delayed will be ineffective. You must make sure that the punishment is suitable and does not just give them attention as that’s what the learner would want. This is behaviour controlled by rewards and punishments in the individual’s
Rules generally promote the greater good, it is intended to guide us to make the best decisions for what needs to be done. Two different forms of Rule utilitarianism, firstly strong rule utilitarianism were the rules are absolute and give no reason to break the rules at any time or place. A weak rule utilitarian could be prepaired to brake rules for the greater good , which offers possible solutions to the weaknesses of strong rule rules . rules can help people with less cognitive ability to benefit each other in the long run. utilitarian rules can help humans understand both higher and lower quality of
Maslow seen and value human nature with goodness, nobility and reason unlike some theory views of human nature were negative One of the famous proposals of Maslow is human motivation which is base on the hierarchy of needs. It contains level of human needs started from lowest such as physiological and survival needs, follow by belonging and love, self-esteem, and self-actualization. From Maslow perspective, the interested to learn is intrinsic. One of the purposes of learning is to express about self-actualization and educators should include this process as a goal. Theory of learning by Maslow’s highlighted the differences between experiential knowledge and spectator knowledge.
McLain (1993), for instance, reported that students with tolerance of ambiguity are more willing to take risks and open to change (Rubin, 1975; Stern, 1975; Naiman, Frohlich, Stern & Todeso, 1978) and show endurance on tasks and higher levels of achievement (Chapelle, 1983; Naiman, Todeso, & Florich, 1975). Similarly, White (1999) viewed AT as a reaction to uncertainties whereby ambiguity is accommodated so that it does not impede progress. Our level of AT might also affect the use of certain language learning strategies. Ehrman and Oxford (1990) founded that learners with intuitive type of personalities who
Nearly over 3.2 million students are victims of being bullied each year. Bullying is an aggressive act towards another person to hurt them physically, emotionally, or mentally. They choose someone as their target, they go for someone more vulnerable weaker than them someone they know will not defend themselves. If schools make stricter policies for bullying in their school it could increase school performance, reduce bullying, and self- harm. As a matter of fact, if schools were to make their policies more effective it could increase school performance.
Students that lack understanding and comprehension are often tempted by the shortcuts of cheating in the classroom.Tommy Raskin in his article “Cheating Students How Our Schools Fail the Humanistic Vision of Education” state “Students are pushed into constant moods of discontent and reckless behavior because school restricts them to an insular environment for the greater portion of their week”(25). Instead of bemoaning students of learning, teachers should build an authentic and empowering way
First, standardized tests cause stress among students. Students who do not have to take standardized tests will not have as much stress as students who take theses tests. According to Bill Maxwell, who did the research, “Each year, thousands of high school students stress out as they prepare to take the SAT or ACT tests to get into college. Many researchers suggest that the singular importance placed on these tests has produced a culture of questionable meritocracy and unfairly blocked thousands of otherwise deserving students from entering the schools of their choice”(Maxell). Accordingly, this shows that students are under stress while preparing for standardized tests.
Validity within a psychological assessment cannot be considered without reliability as it assists each other hand in hand. Validity focuses on the errors picked up within the measure that could alter the state within the measure and to a degree affect the items result quality. There are many types of validity, thus being face validity, content and criterion. RELIABILITY “The degree to which a measurement technique can be depended upon to secure consistent results upon repeated application.”(Weiner,2007). Also the reliability of the candidate should be considered in cases of emotional stability when taking the test or during the assessment.
It also adds to pressure to students to cut corners, take easier courses, and sacrifice ethics, in an effort to achieve better grades instead of better learning (Crouch). Grades can also lead to stress and cheating. Pressure from parents and schools to achieve top scores has created high stress levels began as early as elementary school (Palmer). When Denise Clark Pope, a lecturer in the School of Education, shadowed five high school students for a year she found out the students spent most of their time “finagling the system” in order to get good grades (Palmer). According to Pope every class where a test was given, cheating occurred (Palmer).