Stress is understood as something that is synonymous with the students because according to Ida Hartina (2006), stress has become a habit among students in higher education institutions. According to Dr. Hans Selye, (1975) the founder of stress theory, defined stress as "the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it." The "demand" can be a threat, a challenge or any kind of change which requires the body to adapt. The response is automatic and immediate. Stress which promotes and facilitates learning is called good stress.
The awareness of stress was increased after World War II when it was noticed that many routine life events like examinations, growing up increases stress and leads to dysfunction (Lazarus, 1993). The word stress was used by Hans Selye for the first time to explain the effects of threats that disturbs homeostasis (Chrousos, 1992; Selye, 1978). Walter B. Cannon explained the role of adrenal glands and sympathetic nervous system in maintenance of body equilibrium after exposure to threat. Hans Selye’s observation -” common feeling of being sick” in patients with different diseases laid path for definition of stress. He defined stress as a set of non-specific responses collectively called as” General Adaptation Syndrome”.
Unfortunately, Self-actualization is not acquired in all societies, but if present, it reflects positive vibes in one’s self. The cognitive perspective focuses on the mind’s nature and how mental processes influence the behavior. It also explains the study of mental process that incorporates the cognitive perspective. The environmental category groups two perspectives: behavioral and sociocultural. The behavioral theory identifies how the external environment governs and shapes the actions of the individual, which are ultimately not innate.
Stress. Stress, a complex phenomenon involving the process of interaction between individual and the environment (Cox et al., 2000), is conceptualized as the response to an inappropriate level of pressure or environmental threat rather than the pressure itself (Arroba & James, 1987, p. 21; Ogden, 2007). Along with high level of stress, psychological, biochemical, behavioral and physiological symptoms may occur, which may lead to an increase in dissatisfaction, anxiety, psychological and physical deterioration (Cox et al., 2000). For example, the body’s immune system’s capability of preventing from illness is considered to be affected by neurological and hormonal changes (McEwen, 2006). Moreover, occupational stress has been directly related
A contemporary theory (CT) of stress allows for an interaction to take place between the individual and their environment, which is subsequently different from previous theories that have focused more on stress stimuli and stress responses (Cox & Griffiths, 2010, p.36). In addition, one type of CT would be the interactional theory (IT). Specifically, according to Cox & Griffiths (2010:37), IT focuses on the design of the situations that give rise to the experience of stress and place less weight on the processes involved and the individual’s coping ability. For instance, in Pamela’s case, IT will focus more on situations like significant life changes such as a new job, role changes and interpersonal conflict within the
The Transactional Theory of Stress and Coping was developed by American psychologist Richard S. Lazarus. It is used to analyze the complex processes individuals undergo in coping with stressful life experiences. The core assumption of this theory is that coping is a process wherein adaptational outcomes are determined by how individuals appraise stressful experiences, the coping styles that are employed by the individual, and how dispositional and situational factors serve as mediating variables (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Lazarus, 1999). In early traditional approaches, studies have primarily focused on examining the causal relationship between stress and coping. For example, animal experimentations conceptualized stress as a physiological drive that is triggered by negative environmental stimuli.
Theoretical Background This study is anchored on Folkman & Richard Lazarus’ cognitive appraisal approach. Cognitive appraisal means to focus more on psychological stress that develop to our mind and body in a build of cognitive psychology (Ciccarelli & White, 2012). Richard Lazarus defined stress as a two-way process; it involves the production of stressors by the environment, and the psychophysiological response of an individual subjected to these stressors. Every individual has its own way of perceiving stressful events base on the cognitive appraisal. When a person appraise the stressful events as a threat or a harmful feelings towards a situation, negative emotions may arise, that inhibit the person’s ability to cope with the treat that lead to a psychophysiological reactions to stress (Rathus, 2013).
Everywhere, anytime we look, people today are more stressed out than ever. Many exceeding their limit and giving up on themselves. Stress is a very common problem being faced today and people of all ages are being affected. “Stress, it is argued, can only be sensibly defined as a perceptual phenomenon arising from a comparison between the demand on the person and his or her ability to cope. An imbalance in this mechanism, when coping is important, gives rise to the experience of stress, and to the stress response” (Cox ,1978).
Zein EL Chammah 13/11/2014 PSYCHOLOGY OF ADJUSTMENT POSITION PAPER 1: Your relationship with Stress: when does it hit you, how do you experience it, what changes are needed? What did you learn about stress and how does it fit with you experience of it: Stress is a bodily response caused by an external or internal stimulus. It is a consequence of good and/or bad experiences. For some, the stress is an engine that allows you to surpass yourself. For others, it is a real enemy which oppresses, prevents and handicappes you ... at the risk of transforming itself into a burnout or even lead to a pathology such as a psychosomatic disorder.
People were likely to choose classical music as stress reduction and at the same time increase their level of calmness. The term stress was defined in a strict biological senses by said that stress was an event or stimulus that alters the existed homeostasis within a given organism (Salomon, Kim, Beaulieu & Stefano, 2003). In generally, stress was a psychological feeling with emotion of nervousness, apprehension and helpless. This situation recently occurred to patient that undergo with he or his medical procedure but also happened to normal people since they had to challenge in their life to get survived. Stress actually passes through three stages from the time it exist until it reaches its the most maximum level (Melgosa, 2001).