3.1 Theoretical Framework 3.1.a. Symbolic Interactionism Symbolic interactionism has emerged in the middle of twentieth century as an answer to the dominant approaches which offer macro-level and top-down analysis to society in the field of sociology. It was influenced by Scottish Moralist philosophers from who view the "society as a network of interpersonal communication that connect people". It was also influenced by the American Pragmatist philosophers who view the mind as a device for adaptation and emphasized the significance of the environment specifically the social world for the emergence of an individual. Despite differences in their focus of study, they are similar in that they both study human group life and human conduct (Longmore 1998; Littlejohn and Foss 2009; Littlejohn and Foss 2008; Mooney, Knox and Schacht 2013).
Perhaps one of the earliest systematic sets of theories on deviance from the functionalist perspective were launched by two prominent sociologists, Emile Durkheim and Robert King Merton (Clinard & Meier, 2008). During Durkheim’s suicide study in the nineteenth century, he first developed the concept of Anomie, which refers to a state where social norms no longer bring about social order and consequently resulting in a form of deviance—suicide (Thio, Taylor, & Schwartz, 2013). Durkheim stated that people living in times of revolution or war for instance, would experience anomie and may become deviant because rapid social change or unforeseen social situations often stop them from adhering to conventional social norms (Thio, Taylor, & Schwartz, 2013). In 1938, an American sociologist named Robert Merton translated Durkheim’s Anomie theory into Anomie-Strain theory by re-conceptualizing the original concept of anomie (Goode,
Theory of Identity Development Identity is shaped by how an individual organizes experiences within the environment that revolves around oneself (Torres, Jones, & Renn, 2009). In Student Affairs literature, identity is defined as one’s personal held beliefs about the self in relation to social groups (e.g., race, ethnicty, religion, sexual orientation) and the ways one expresses that relationship (Torress, Jones, & Renn, 2009, p. 577). Identity is also a social construct meaning it’s ones sense of self and beliefs about one’s own social group as well others are constructed through interactions with the broader social context in which dominant values dictate norms and expectations (Torres, Jones, & Renn, 2009). Identity has a rich tradition
These are Macrosociology (Macro) and Microsociology (Micro). Macro sociology focus upon the social system while looking at society as a whole. It looks at how interactions within different types of social institutions, structures, economic system, and cultures impact upon the behaviour of individuals within society. Macro perspective can be divided into two focus areas, Conflict theory and Consensus theory which in turn allowed perspectives such as Functionalism and Marxism to explore how society changes and develops (Giddens and Sutton,
2. Literature Review This section will discuss several theories, finding of previous researchers and concepts related to Intercultural sensitivity, culture and the field of Intercultural Communication. The literature review section aims to achieve several objectives. Firstly, it plans to define the concepts of Intercultural competence, Intercultural sensitivity and other related terms from the points of view of different researchers. Secondly, it discusses the history of intercultural field and the theoretical frameworks developed with regards to intercultural sensitivity as well as intercultural competence in the education field.
HUYNH THI HONG HOA CLASS: CDA STUDENT NO. : 140929001 THE DISCOURSE- HISTORICAL APPROACH An introduction: The Discourse-Historical Approach is a set of analytical tools developed by Ruth Wodak and her colleagues under the framework of Norman Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis. In the Discourse-Historical Approach, Wodak and her colleagues assume a dialectical relationship between discourse and the particular social world it is embedded in, including situations, institutional frames, and social structures. There are some basic concepts that have been used in the Discourse-Historical Approach. They will be explained respectively as the followings: Critique: Critique has many different meanings according to Frankfurt School, literary criticism
These theories underpin many of the factors that contributed to the development of modern society as we know it today and give a comprehensive account of the social changes during the 19th to 20th century. The book has separate chapters on the various components of social change in modern society, and one chapter Called Modernity and Social Movements written by sociologist Ron Eyerman, is and essay of the differences between old and new social movements in the modern world. This source sheds light on the distinct differences between old and new social movements and also why the new social movements differ from the old ones. The source discusses the difference between industrial society and post-industrial
INTRODUCTION This assignment is set up into two parts. The first part will be the theoretical part, where we will be discussing the concept of the chosen topic, Diversity Management. We as a group will collect definitions from various sources in order to get a broader understanding of Diversity Management. Thereafter we will look at the analytical part of Diversity Management. We will then elaborate on a case study of our choice in order for us to illustrate the concept of Diversity Management.
In reality, all over the 20th century, functionalist researches have supported major developments in Human Resource practices. The practices therefore have a strong association with the thought of control. 3.2.2 Interpretive Interpretive refers to the general category of theory, which includes labeling, symbolic interactionism, ethno methodology, social constructionism and phenomenology. The fundamental concern of the theory is creating a meaning as it seeks to understand how members of a given society define a situation. Typically, it is constructed with structural theories that claim to remove subjectivity of the researcher and therefore assuming that one can understand human behavior by adjusting structural forces.
Second, each small group will be re-categorized into some groups which have similarities. Last, some big groups will be theorized based on the theoretical data. Figure 2 is an example which shows one predicted data of the interview related to my research question. (Saiki, C.S., 2008) Each procedure of data analysis with grounded theory approach is as follows; Property and Dimension Property and dimension can be defined as the components of the matter. We would be able to know what the phenomenon or fact actually is by finding property and dimension.