These perspectives hold very different and specific characteristics that make them all appropriate to understanding sociology (Cury, Jiobu, and Schwirian 12). The functionalist perspective says that society and its systems work together to maintain stability. This perspective heavily relies on the belief that each part of society affects another. Functionalists believe that “social mechanisms hold society together” (Cury, Jiobu, and Schwirian 12). They focus heavily on how different institutions affect social life.
It allows one to understand hoe the society fits together and the consequences that might arise when the community is affected by social change. Secondly, sociology enables one to develop a sense of appreciation for the diversities that are found in a set of people. It also develops the knowledge of an individual on a range of issues including human behavior, the social organization as well as culture. 6. Introduce one classical sociological
Cultural pluralism is the recognition and respect for the different cultures of the world (Aguas 2003, 111). Although cultures are embodied in particular identities, that should not hinder the quest for common values. There are common values that are inherent in each culture, values that maybe considered as universal. Universality however, is not synonymous with
Outline and Explain Durkheim’s Conception of Social Fact Introducing Sociology ID Number: B00309144 Word Count: 1,000 February 13th 2017 Table of Content Introduction 3 Body 4 Conclusion 5 Reference 6 Social fact is particularly defined by Durkheim (1986) as a category of facts which present very special characteristics: like acting, thinking, and feeling external to the individual, which are invested with a coercive power by virtue of which they exercise control over him. Also, social facts are the values, cultural norms, and social structures which transcend the individual and are capable of exercising social control. This essay will outline and explain Durkheim’s conception
Both men and women can do feminist research. However, many feminist researchers, believe that nothing is separate from social life and experiences, nor does it exist outside the social . We also believe that men and women experience the social world differently, in turn, experience research and leadership differently. Therefore, feminist research methods must reflect feminist ontology, epistemology, and methodology which are developed from the experiences of women.Another way feminist research differs from mainstream research is that the feminist researcher makes sense of the world and produces generalized knowledge-claims on the basis of experiences. Feminist researchers also treat knowledge as situated because they make the assumption that particular structures are defined as facts external to and constraining upon people.
Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx both had interesting theories about societies. Durkheim and Marx found it important to understand society integration. Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx have played profound roles in the understanding of Sociological theory. Sociological theory can be used to explain many things including how society is held together. Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx had different ideas on what held society together but in ways their ideas were also similar.
(Sociology.ie, 2014) Emile Durkheim (1798-1857) was a French sociologist, who was interested in the impact of the industrial revolution on how people behaved in society. Durkheim is known as one of the founding fathers of sociology, due to the large efforts he used to establish sociology as a science subject. This meaning, that you can analyse society using scientific analysis or “scientific fact”. Durkheim is well known for his theories relating to mechanical and organic solidarity. Mechanical Solidarity refers to the feeling of connectedness between different individuals due to similar religious beliefs, Work or education.
He proposed that sociologists make the centre of their theories on the broad reasons that people pursue any of their goals. He believed that social action is orientated towards one of the four ideal types, ideal in a sense that a measure against which actual behaviour can be compared. Social action involves a mixture of the four types namely traditional; a goal is followed because it was followed in the past, affectional; a goal is followed in response to an emotion like love, value-rational; a goal that is valued is followed with a deep awareness of the symbolic importance of the actions taken to follow the goal and lastly instrumental-rational; a valued goal is followed by the most efficient means without considering the appropriateness or consequence of those means (Ferrante, 2014:16). He preserved that in the presence of industrialisation, behaviour was less likely to be motivated by tradition or emotion and was likely to be instrumental-rational (Ferrante, 2014:16). Conclusion The assignment contained a complete summary of August Comte, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber’s most important ideas or views that they stated in their theories.
For instance, Kessler notes that female genitals are able to be reconstructed indistinguishably to represent regular organs. The second factor relates to the argument from feminist expeditions (For example, the S.H.E (Social, Health and Empowerment Feminist Collective of Transgender and Intersex Women of Africa). with the cause to contend that the presence or absence functional sexual organs should not be the only decisive conditions for gender assignment. Finally, the last factor contends that the term “gender identity” separates the idea of oneself being associated to a gender, and the social expectations and behavioural effects of what is assumed a specific gender should
The founder of Functionalism is Emile Durkheim and as a theoretical approach Functionalism “explains the existence of social institutions such as religion in terms of the needs that the institutions wood meet” in society (Christiano, Swatos, & Kivisto, n.d., p. 39). Durkheim understood religion to be “the glue that held society together” (Christiano et al., p. 39). Through common beliefs and values a Functionalist believed that religion would maintain conformity, social structure and control by offering purpose and meaning to people’s lives through belief. Conflict Theory by Karl Marx says that religion plays an important role in continuing the status quo. Marks argued that “religion accomplishes this by promising rewards in the after-life rather than in this life.