1. According to the article, the difference between individual, institutional, and structural racism is: individual racism is examined as a social psychological phenomenon that based on the bias that might be created by different individual’s ideas and beliefs. While institutional racism is “based on a system in which the White majority ‘raises its social position by exploiting, controlling, and keeping down others who are categorized in racial or ethnic terms’” (Silva 1997: 466) The author considered racism as an institutional matter by using the example that the majority of the society might think minorities as colonists who are not belong to this society originally. At last, structural racism is a system regarding to politics, institutional practices, and cultural representation to strengthen the inequalities between different racial groups.
2. A real estate management company rejects multiple housing applications with "black sounding" names is institutional racism in which a white-dominated society/company choose to treat the black people unequally and reject their housing applications only because their “black sounding” names. It is a institutional racism because it is a form of racial discrimination created by a social institution that specifically targets black communities.
3. A group of students yell "go back to your country" to an Indian student is individual racism because the racial discrimination might be created by personal bias or stereotypes of a specific
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African Americans have systematically been deprived of equal opportunities and fundamental rights in America since the establishment of slavery. Although the Civil Rights Act banned the implementation of segregation and racial inequality over 40 years ago, the overall concept of racial and cultural hierarchy still lingers at the forefront of today’s society. White America’s history of racially oppressing, isolating, and segregating African Americans have led to present-day issues surrounding the political and economic forces that intentionally limits Blacks access to and opportunity from social, economic, educational, and political advancement through the institution of structural racism. Structural racism within America’s governments and
Intense racism refers to the belief that one race is inferior in relation to one’s own. Symbolic racism “is expressed in terms of threats to people’s basic values and to the status quo they have become comfortable with in their culture. ” Tokenism is when someone harbors ill feelings towards another race but is unwilling to admit to those feelings. Arm’s-length prejudice refers to when a person will be friendly towards those from an “outgroup” as long as the relationship does not become too intimate.
Additionally, Francis faces job rejections despite his qualifications, highlighting racial biases in employment. These examples illustrate the pervasive impact of racism on individuals' lives and call attention to the need for societal change. Explain what structural racism is, and how it is showcased in this text. Provide 2 examples. 4 points
Discussion The combined effects of inequality and structural racism indicators at risk of SGA birth income were examined and found that the structural racism, assessed against racial inequalities in education, employment, and prison was strongly associated with the birth of SGA when It occurred in combination with high income inequality. Relations were not explained by state differences in poverty or absolute individual differences in demographic characteristics or factors of biological or behavioral risk. When co-occur at high levels, the combined effects of income inequality and structural racism increased risk of SGA birth almost 2 times. This effect was not influenced by race, implying that the deleterious context of high inequality of
One example of institutionalized racism that was demonstrated in 13th is the mass incarcerations of minorities. I think it is a problem not only because there is a disproportionate amount of minorities but also because people do not realize this is happening. It is institutionalized racism because after being in prison these minorities cannot vote or get a job and therefore puts them at a disadvantage. I think getting people to realize this problem is the first step to address it but I am not sure what should happen next.
Unlike most, I am a little hesitant to jump on the institutionalized racism bandwagon. Not because I don’t believe that our political and social institutions are racist; there is no doubt in my mind they are. I could browse Google for one minute and present thousands of statistics and facts about our schools, courts, banks, and criminal justice system that are impossible to argue against. The idea of institutionalized racism troubles me because I believe it is presented as an omnipresent force of nature, unable to be changed or dealt with, and we have begun to use this theory as a scapegoat. We have constructed an evil being named “society” to play the role of the villain so we, as individuals, don’t have to.
However, what they fail to see is that it’s a social fabrication. In America, there’s a singularity where some individuals have advantages because of their skin color, while unfortunately others are victimized for the equivalent reason. The deep-rooted controversy of inequality and prejudice has insinuated the social fabric in our American society and government, as African Americans still experience discrimination on all levels until today, but society seems to be blind to that fact. As mentioned in the article “Redesigning Racial Caste in America via Mass Incarceration” written by Gilda Graff, “The extent of America’s continuing blindness to the New Jim Crow can be seen in the presidential nominee Obama’s 2008 Father’s Day address about missing black fathers, a message delivered many times by black ministers as well as by Bill Cosby, Sidney Poitier, and Louis Farrakhan” (126). As an example Kimberly Houzah, a twenty-seven-year-old woman was kicked out of a Victoria Secret store at the Quintard Mall in Oxford, Alabama.
Systemic Racism in the United States Many individuals today have different point of views on how the United States of America became what it is today. For instance, point of views such as how society learned to function the way it does, the law and order in place, and ultimately, how circumstances have developed throughout history. Unfortunately, institutional/institutionalized racism, also known as systemic racism is also a concept that has settled and is grown to be quite predominant in the United States all through times past. Systemic racism continues to take place in settings such as banks, courts of law, government organizations, school systems, and the like.
Do you think America is institutionally racist? Who is at a disadvantage? Institutional racism means that there is a systematic way for certain groups of people to be put at a lower level or advantage than another group of people. There was definitely institutional racism in America about fifty years ago, and I know that because I can name specific institutions who were racist to the black minority. But in order for anyone to fight modern day institutional racism, you have to tell me what company is being racist, tell me why, and we can fight that together.
The major thesis in this book, are broken down into two components. The first is how we define racism, and the impact that definition has on how we see and understand racism. Dr. Beverly Tatum chooses to use the definition given by “David Wellman that defines racism as a system of advantages based on race” (1470). This definition of racism helps to establish Dr. Tatum’s theories of racial injustice and the advantages either willingly or unwillingly that white privilege plays in our society today. The second major thesis in this book is the significant role that a racial identity has in our society.
Intrinsic racists believe that each race has a different moral status that are independent from moral characteristics that come from moral essences. Being the same race as someone else entails preferring that person over another who is not of the same race. For example, we have a greater moral interest in our biologically related brother than in a stranger. Intrinsic racists will never hold that someone who has greater capabilities, but is not of their race, is admirable or will receive the same treatment to someone of their own race. Just as intrinsic sexists will hold that the pure fact that someone is a woman is a reason for treating her a certain
For example, one racial project that has taken hold in the Black community has been on black beauty. Although a “Black is Beautiful” movement started in the 1960’s there was a natural hair movement in the 2000s that sparked social, political and economic change. Dominant culture dictated straight and “neat” hair; this was a way to control Black bodies both socially and economically, as certain workplaces maintained racist guidelines on appearance. This racial project challenged the beauty norms, triggered a 34% decline in relaxers since 2009 (Sidibe 2015) while increasing the market of Black beauty supplies, while also advocating for changes in racist regulations such as “unauthorized hairstyles” outlined by the U.S. Military (Rhodan 2004).
The study of racism has a profound potential to become an ambiguous sociological endeavor. Incidentally, accounting for the multitude of factors which encompass this subject appear to make it the very heart of the matter and consequently the most time consuming. Although, it is my belief that all three of the main sociological theories (Functionalism, Conflict Theory and Symbolic Interactionism) should be integrated in order to achieve a legitimate and quantifiable outcome, for obvious reasons the “Conflict Theory” logically renders the best possible method to obtain a valid micro analysis of specific agents in this case. The oxford dictionary defines racism as being: prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior; a belief that all members of each race possesses characteristics or abilities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races.
Reflection Précis 1, Race and Ethnicity Part I: During the last lecture sessions, Dr. Jendian talked about appreciating diversity, race, ethnicity, and racism. In his lecture, we learned that many people believe that race is something biological. However, the true reality is that race is a social construct and not a biological one. For example, in the documentary Race: The Power of An Illusion, we were able to understand that there are more variations among people in the same “race” than with people from another “race.” However, physical differences, for example, the most obvious skin color, has created prejudices against minority groups.
Racism is an ever growing issue in the world, and something we can’t hide behind. According to dictionary.com the defintion of racism is: “the belief that all members of each race possess characteristics, abilities, or qualities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races.” Race was created socially by how people perceive ideas and faces people are not used to yet. It is the “hatred” of one person to another individual, solely based on that person's belief that the person is inferior because of their language, birthplace and skin colour. Racism is an issue that has lasted throughout history, providing justification for a group’s dominance over another.