One must take the issue of Poverty itself and examine it by putting the issue on two different scales. The two different scales should be “How can poverty be a personal problem?”, and “How can poverty be a social problem?”. After comparing the differences, the issue of poverty should be better understood from a sociological point of view. Poverty can be a personal issue because many people are born into poverty. As a child you can not control where you live and what your parents do for work, so growing up in poverty cannot be controlled in a situation like that.
The study of chronic poverty in Indian context has attracted major attention in recent times. India is country housing major proportion of rural households, who are vulnerable and susceptible to poverty. There exists rich literature on the rural poverty and its causes within the Indian context. However, delving deeper in, chronic poverty and its relationship with migration has received much attention only in the recent times. Chronic Poverty is a state of extreme poverty which makes it impossible for people to escape, given their lack of resources and assets.
Poverty never results from the lack of one thing but from many interlocking factors that cluster in poor people's experience and definitions of poverty (Narayan D. 1999) Numerous characteristics of a country's economy and society, as well as some external influences, create and perpetuate rural poverty(World Bank, 2001) but some causes are more prevalent than others. Having land for example, controlling it and using it are critical dimensions of rural livelihoods, and determine rural wealth and rural poverty. Land is fundamental to the lives of poor rural people. It is a source of food, shelter, income and social identity. Secure access to land reduces vulnerability to hunger and poverty (EU 2004, Cox et al 2003, El Ghonemy 1994).
Despite the great wealth the United States possesses, it has for long struggled with poverty which is said to be inherited from one generation to another. The culture of poverty hinders those affected from economic betterment however much assistance they obtain from social programs put in place. The term Culture of poverty is believed to have been coined by Oscar Lewis, who suggested that children who grow up in poverty-stricken families are highly likely to adopt the norms and practices that encourage poverty. Thus, these children, he believed, would replicate the adapted values in their lives which would in turn generate a cycle of intergenerational poverty in the long run (Bell et al, 2013). Thus the culture of poverty is a topic which creates heated debates in both the public and political arenas.
The Combined Theory of Poverty believes that women, minorities, and people of color are disproportionately impacted by poverty because of societal factors. It is impossible to view our society in any light without recognizing this important fact. Gentrification, wage discrepancies, the lack of access to job training, and stigmas surrounding minorities, women, and people of color are some of the mine reasons why these groups face poverty the most. While the structural theory of poverty helps to influence this view of poverty, it does not explain how minorities, people of color, or women are able to succeed at all in life. Those who did succeed likely did it through sheer willpower and determination.
But it’s important not to judge the people who are living in conditions that seem terrifying to you because you don’t know what they’ve been through, nor you know what caused them to be in this situation. Poverty is not always a personal choice, but a reflection of society. Difficult circumstances causes people to end up being poor, even if it’s not in their control. People are in poverty because they find themselves in holes in the economic system that deliver the inadequate income. Being low on money is a reflection of overpriced goods, high insurance cost and bills.
• Poverty breeds poverty .If one cannot afford proper nutrition or health care for one’s family, children grow up at greater risk of acquiring a life threatening or disabling disease. • If one cannot afford to educate one’s children, it will be a repeat of their parents’ life. • If one cannot afford to buy one’s own land or home or livestock, there are few opportunities to build assets that will last over time. Poverty in Pakistan (Case study)
Also, poverty includes hunger which is related to malnutrition, different health problems, limited or no access to education, inadequate housing conditions, homelessness and lack of other basic services. Economists define poverty as the inability to achieve a certain standard of living. For example, Ravallion (Ravallion, 1989) believes that "Poverty exists in a given society, when one or more persons can not reach a level of economic prosperity that is considered to represent acceptable minimum regarding the standards of a given society. " This definition implies that the concept of poverty is determined by standards, values and circumstances prevailing in the society. But this definition is not relevant, because it would be difficult to make comparisons of countries and societies because nature and structure of poverty may vary from country to country.
Relative Poverty refers to people not being able to reach a certain minimum standard of living which is determined by their government, and enjoyed by others within the same country. Unlike Absolute Poverty, Relative Poverty varies from country to country. This essay will explore factors such as the face of poverty in South Africa, the historical causes of poverty, interventions into poverty and how to deal with and solve poverty
In this era of 21st century, poverty is still happening around the world despite the country is developed or less developed. There is no exact definition for poverty however World Bank defined poverty as inability of human affording the basic needs, such as clean water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter. Besides, poverty is measured using the terms absolute and relative (UNESCO, 2015). Poverty is said the greatest threat to political stability in developing world because when a developing country is facing poverty, it may cause the social tensions among the people in the country to increase and then threaten the country stability. Furthermore, the effects of poverty are said interrelated as they do not occur alone.