New Criticism vs Structuralism New Criticism · Focus on “the text itself”; don’t mind the author and his/her background/biography, trust the tale not the teller; must do a close reading; must be objective and put own ideas aside · Don’t pay attention to your feelings · Formal elements (plot, setting, characterization) · Timeless verbal object · Stick to the text, quote directly; NO paraphrasing · Intentional Fallacy: trying to judge a work of art by assuming its intent/purpose of the artist who created it · Affective Fallacy: supposed error of judging a text on the basis of its emotional effects on a reader · Organic Unity: working together of all parts to make an inseparable whole · Critics
Post structuralism is an approach attitude or ethos that pursues critique in particular ways. Because it understands critique as an operation that flushes out the assumptions through which conventional and dominant understandings have come to be. Post structuralism considered critique as an inherently positive exercise that establishes the conditions of possibility for pursuing alternatives. It is in this context that post structuralism make other theories of international relations one of its objects of analysis and approaches those paradigms with meta-theoretical question designed to expose how they are structured (Campbell, 2006:225)1. Post structuralism found itself marginalized within international relations, that is large because those critical of it have misunderstood many of its central claims and have been anxious about the effect of following its meta-theoretical questioning to its logical conclusion (Campbell, 2006:
Social constructionism is a major theory used in the academic study of religion. Social constructionism is the theory that reality, truth and meaning is just society just running its course. Bringing this into perspective there have been many different viewpoints as to whether or not this is a valid idea or whether this becomes a paradox of some kind. The idea that our religions has been constructed by the humans living in due to the social process of human beings living through life. Now if truth, reality and meaning are constructed by people, the idea of institutions seems preposterous to most people.
The author comprehends post-structuralism as 'a basic demeanor, methodology, or ethos which points out the significance of representation, the relationship of power and learning, and the governmental issues of character in the generation and comprehension of worldwide undertakings. The catalyst behind the article is fairly that an all the more expressly post-structuralist securitization theory may empower a more basic engagement with the legislative issues of security. The second point of the article is to build a framework of a securitization theory that depends on post-structuralism however focused to securitization examination and scientifically appropriate. The third point of the article is to demonstrate the uniqueness of post-structuralist securitization theory in an illustrative contextual investigation of the Muhammad cartoon crisis. The primary segment follows securitization hypothesis ' post-structuralist family history through a reading of Buzan and Waever 's foundational writings and how these have been read by later securitization scholars Balzacq (2005) and Stritzel
1. Post-structuralism Post-structuralism is a breakaway from structuralism. Structuralism is the philosophy of systems, in a hierarchy that is viewed as a natural order of things. Post-structuralism values the individual thought and the subtext of the context, that is constant, never-ending and ‘coming and going’. To understand post-structuralism, one must understand structuralism.
According to Frampton 's proposal, critical regionalism should adopt modern architecture, critically, for its universal progressive qualities but at the same time value should be placed on the geographical context of the building” . Keeping in mind the knowledge of how a structure not being a entity but a symbol of creation of ideas, new method of articulation, methods of construction is how critical regionalism
Structuration theory: Its Application and Place among Other Sociological Theories Margaret Archer once stated that ‘the problem of structure and agency has rightly come to be seen as the basic issue in modern social theory’. The debate on whether human behavior is shaped by social surrounding, or is the outcome of individual’s own characteristics, today is the central issue in sociology. By his structuration theory, Giddens thus made an important attempt to address this problem. More specifically, he proposed a theory that seeks to resolve this scientific dispute, by claiming that society and an individual are in the relation of mutual influence. The theory therefore became a popular and well-known sociological lens not only among social scientists,
Constructivist epistemological perspective Constructivist epistemology is a perspective in philosophy of science arguing that scientific knowledge is constructed by the scientific community, who seek to construct models of the natural world. The origins of constructivism are believed descend to the time of Socrates, who claimed that learners and teachers should talk to each other, ask questions to interpret and construct the knowledge. According to constructivists, the world is independent of human thoughts, but knowledge of the world is always a social construction of the human. The “constructivist stance maintains that learning is a process of constructing meaning; it is how people make sense of their experience”. In other words, natural science consists of conceptual constructs that aim to explain sensory experience.
It is thus posited that “Constructivism is a structural theory of the international system that makes the following core claims: (1) states are the principal units of analysis for international political theory; (2) the key structures in the states system are intersubjective rather than material; and (3) state identities and interests are in important part constructed by these social structures”, Behravesh 2011. Among the abovementioned schools of thoughts concerning international relations, constructivism seemingly offers the most suitable and feasible solutions in order to address the issues of climate change and its adverse long-term effects since cooperation among nations guided not by material and power factors by “discursive power and ideational elements”, Khan 2016. One salient question concerning the
Constructivism The theory of constructivism has its roots in psychology, philosophy, science and biology. It is a post-structuralist theory of evolution and development. The term ‘constructivism’ was coined by Jean Piaget. The theory deals with knowledge construction and learning and talks about how structures, language activity and meaning are developed. Cognitive development and deep understanding are the goals of constructivism.